28 Nov 2021 8:40 AM GMT
On 27th November, 2021, Justice Hima Kohli, Supreme Court judge, unveiled the 'Mediation Compendium' at the 1st Judges Conclave on Mediation Education organised by the illustrious E-Mediation Writings (EMW). Briefly outlining the contents of the book, which is the first book on the mediation curriculum to be recommended by the Bar Council of India for LLB courses, she referred to...
On 27th November, 2021, Justice Hima Kohli, Supreme Court judge, unveiled the 'Mediation Compendium' at the 1st Judges Conclave on Mediation Education organised by the illustrious E-Mediation Writings (EMW). Briefly outlining the contents of the book, which is the first book on the mediation curriculum to be recommended by the Bar Council of India for LLB courses, she referred to the Compendium as a 'comprehensive referencer' for the law students.
The essence of the event was to encourage the dissemination of knowledge of mediation not only to the students of law, but to the people at large. The values of Mahatma Gandhi, that education which empowers people and invigorates them to lay the foundation of peaceful co-existence, should be inculcated in all and sundry, had inspired the team at EMW to come up with the Compendium, which has eighteen chapters and covers the basics of mediation.
Views of Justice Kohli on Mediation
While unveiling the Mediation Compendium, Justice Hima Kohli (Judge, Supreme Court of India) congratulated the team at EMW for their endeavour to publish a comprehensive book on mediation. Addressing the concept of meditation to be a noble one, wherein the attempt is to make peace between the parties, she referred to the Gospel of Matthew and the speech of Dalai Lama to emphasis on the importance of peacemakers in the world today -
"It is stated in the New Testament, in the 9th verse of the 5th Chapter of the Gospel of Matthew that blesseth are the peacemakers for they shall be called the children of God. Who could be a better qualified peacemaker than the mediators? His Holiness, the Dalai Lama who had quoted last year in an international mediation conference, who had stated that the planet does not need more successful people, the planet desperately needs peacemakers, healers, restorers, storytellers and lovers of all kinds. And to my mind mediators eminently qualify as peacemakers."
Justice Kohli delineated the basics of mediation, which is a decision making process assisted by the mediator giving ample opportunities to the parties to exert their autonomy-
"Mediation, you all know, is a process which is both new in terms of the emergence and the legal arena and old in terms of its timeless universality. In short, mediation is a negotiation conducted with the assistance of the third party, who is the mediator. It assists decision making processes that typically take the form of a facilitated negotiation or dialogue based on the principles of party autonomy, focussed on the choices of parties, their interests, and their needs, rather than their rights or their positions alone. We know its a voluntary process as the parties are not under any compulsion to take a decision and arrive at a settlement. The decision ultimately made is a reflection of their choices and their priorities."
Glancing through the chapters, Justice Kohli recognised that the book covers all the essential principles of mediation-
"I had a cursory look at the book that was being launched today - it has 18 chapters covering different aspects of mediation starting from explaining the basic concepts of mediation by differentiating conflict and dispute, extensively discussing the needs for alternate dispute resolution. And the processes, stages and different styles of mediation. The publication covers all essential principles of mediation and recognizes it as a positive conflict resolution process. The topics covered range from different styles of mediation to the role of the mediator himself. So, there are chapters on bargaining, negation and problem solving techniques that serve as rudimentary explanations of bargaining techniques, explaining complex techniques and peculiarities of negotiation in an easy comprehensible manner...There are also chapters on agreement that focus on the structuring and development of a pre-mediation agreement and another one on the role of the mediator at the onset of a prospective mediation."
She categorically pointed out that the topic pertaining to the role and ethics of a mediator had piqued her interest. Justice Kohli appreciated that instead of indulging in philosophical deliberation on ethics, the author had dealt with the challenges faced by a mediator in real life-
"One of the topics that caught my eyes was the role and ethics of a mediator, which is very important. It recognises the multitude of discussions and schools of thought on ethical obligations of a mediator rather than a philosophical discourse on ethics, the chapter seeks to educate the reader on a real time challenge faced by a mediator."
Justice Kohli noticed that an article on online dispute had given credit to the pandemic for expediting the advancement of online dispute resolution (ODR). Acknowledging that ODR has transformed the realm of mediation, she reckoned that it would be instrumental in resolving disputes by both the traditional and the alternative mechanism, functioning in conjunction with physical hearings-
"The article on online dispute gives credit to the pandemic for accelerating the transition to digital dispute resolution. In fact that is the flavour of the season, if I may say. ODR has really taken the entire mediation process to a different level and in this pandemic and even after that it has found a place for itself. I certainly think that the ODR will be the new tool that all of us will be using from time to time to resolve disputes not only of ADR related disputes but also for conducting courts which should be incorporated into physical hearings that we are all ultimately looking at. So, there probably will be a combination of both. It would give ease to parties and also to mediators and those who cannot connect for their being in different continents, different parts of the world and still willing to undergo that process. It will open new doors for sure.
Taking the participants further through the contents of the book, she referred to the chapter on pre-institution mediation, wherein the mandatory pre-institution meditation like the one inserted in the Commercial Courts Act had been discussed. She asserted that pre-institution mediation would be key in nipping the disputes in the bud, which would take the cause of mediation forward-
"I've also come across the chapter on pre-institution mediation and settlement, which squarely covers the newly inserted mandatory pre-institution mediation provision in the Commercial Courts Act, in which a large number of disputes that can be nipped in the bud can be done so in that pre-mediation stage. Articles on Singapore convention and its enforceability in India throws light on the statutory aspects of the ADR method."
Another important aspect that Justice Kohli addressed from the chapters of the book, was the responsibilities of the lawyer mediator. According to her, the perspective of the author in imploring the mediators to refrain from taking over the process of mediation is noteworthy-
"Last, but not the least the topic on mediation advocacy and responsibilities of lawyers in mediation that unequivocally highlights the effective communication skills and explains the importance of negotiation, and bargaining skills. The author has encouraged the lawyer mediators to be analytical in the approach and refrain from taking over the process. A very important aspect."
Interesting features of the Draft Mediation Bill, 2021
Though hesitant to discuss the Draft Mediation Bill, 2021 which is yet to be tabled in the Parliament, Justice Kohli pointed out some of its salient features - bifurcation of domestic and international settlement disputes, timelines for mediation with a maximum of 90 days, the concept of interim mediation, emergency mediation and community mediation, enumeration of 'mediateable' disputes, delineation of the grounds of appeal to the settlement agreement.
"I don't think I would like to do a discourse, really speaking, on the Bill because we all are going through the process. But, I must share with you that the Honourable Law Minister only this morning had stated in the House before the valedictory programme that was conducted by the Supreme Court on the Constitution Day Celebration that the bill will soon be tabled in the Parliament, and come up for discussion. What the Bill today has some very interesting features - it has divided mediation into international settlement disputes and domestic ones, it has decided to set timelines for mediation which is imperative with a maximum timeline of 90 days, there is a concept of interim mediation ..perhaps maybe a game changer in mediation proceedings. We talk of emergency orders in arbitration, we are talking of emergency mediation. The bill talks of community mediation which is unique and something which we all in India are familiar with. Who doesn't know what community is, with Panchayats in every village, every nook and cranny of our country, where people sit across the table and resolve disputes instead of going to courts. There are some very unique features of this Bill that delineate the nature of matters that cannot be referred to mediation at all, that are excluded and those that are included what would be the basis of laying a challenge to those settlement agreements. Because we all know...when the settlements come to court and the parties have signed in the dotted lines suddenly turn up and say that I was not really conveyed the meaning of all that was recorded, I did not understand the nuances of the settlement, I was coerced, I was misguided - which of the ones will be available to lay a challenge to it and which ones will persuade the courts to do that, is also an aspect covered in the Bill."
In conclusion, Justice Kohli lauding EMW for their persistent contribution in creating awareness and sharing knowledge.
Mediation education as a course for other professions : former Delhi High Court CJ Justice Rajendra Menon
Justice Rajendra Menon [Former Chief Justice, Delhi High Court; Chairperson, Armed Forces Tribunal] addressing the conclave on the above-titled issue, opined that meditation has been explored in litigation and even at pre-litigation stage, but the need is to introduce it in other organisations as well.
"We have done a lot with regard to mediation pertaining to litigation and for the purpose of reducing the backlog of cases. We have also started pre-litigation mediation but we should go further and introduce mediation in certain other areas and organisations…"
After taking charge as the Chairperson of the Armed Forces Tribunal, Justice Menon had experiences of several family disputes coming before him. He apprised the participants that under the Army Act, Navy Act and the Airforce Act, Central Govt. can deduct wages from the officers' salary upto 28%, if they refuse to pay maintenance to their wife and children. All these matters of maintenance eventually came up to the Tribunal and every day at least five matters of this nature were listed before him. Justice Menon figured out that the complaints against erring officers in this regard were referred to the Army Women's Welfare Association, that would visit the household and report to the Commander who would then send show cause notices. Considering that scotching the dispute at the first instance would be the most efficient approach, Justice Menon proposed to introduce meditation at the earliest possible stage and train the members of the Women's Welfare Association as mediators. Though opposed initially, the idea of training army officers as mediators has gained momentum now.
"A first 40 days meditation training for the officers of the army was conducted recently in the month of September in the Indian Military Law Institute at New Delhi. 62 officers form the rank of Majors, Lt. Gen, have been trained. I am getting feedbacks from many of them and they are saying Sir it's a wonderful concept.. It has changed our attitude in dealing with the day to day problem in the forces."
Importance of mediation education vis-a-vis the justice delivery system : Justice Sam P Koshy, Judge, Chhattisgarh High Court
Justice P. Sam Koshy [Judge, Chhattisgarh High Court] elucidated how the alternative dispute mechanism has now made its own place in a legal setup where adversarial system is widely recognised.
"When we were students of law what we were basically taught and brought up was that our judicial system in India was an adversarial system...The entire judicial system revolved within the four corners of the rules and laws, we could not have gone beyond that...It is here that there is a shift now brought in by way of the new ADR system and meditation being one of the strongest wings of ADR."
Pertinently, he pointed out that there was a need to make the lawyers aware that mediation is not anti-advocate and is indeed a viable option for litigants to get their dispute resolved. Some lawyers, especially the ones from rural background or from the lower courts have a misplaced apprehension that mediation or other alternative dispute resolutions would adversely impact their finances. In this background the need to introduce mediation in the education system, he thought, is crucial.
"Another reason which needs to be considered is ...that leaving aside the lawyers of the metropolitan cities and the grown up cities, the lawyer from a rural background, a lawyer from the district court or tahsildar, taluka court carries a myth in his mind or has an apprehension that adopting mediation for Dispute Resolution would be detrimental to the professional career. They may lose their professional area and may have an adverse impact on the economic front. It is here that the need for an education system where mediation is made a part of the curriculum is all the more necessary."
Alluding that mediation would be an excellent alternative to the traditional judicial process, Justice Koshy emphasised that one case might have several disputes and all can be settled in mediation in much less time than the traditional process.
"Considering the fact that the traditional judicial process is a time consuming one, Justice Koshy suggested that mediation would serve as an excellent alternative. He suggested that mediation has the potential to resolve multiple disputes emanating from the same matter through discussion in a single sitting."
Justice Koshy encouraged that the curriculum in law schools should also be adequate to provide the students with the choice to look at mediation as their vocation.
"My personal view is that it is high time that mediation should be made a part of the curriculum...The Bar Council has already proposed, I hope it comes into action very soon."
Specialised education and training for professors of law : Justice Talwant Singh, Judge, Delhi High Court.
Justice Talwant Singh [Judge, Delhi High Court] opined that meditation training for the professors should be taken up at a National level. He suggested that a 2-3 days national conference or regional conferences would be helpful in teaching meditation to the professors.
"My take on mediation teacher training is that it has to be taken up at a National level. I remember, about ten years ago, in Delhi University, Law Faculty we organised a training of the trainers for all the law teachers for cyber law, I think that type of initiative is to be taken at the National level. So that all the, at least one teacher from every law college or law universities, their deans, the directors, all the people who are the stakeholders in teaching mediation at college level - they should be brought under one umbrella. They should come for a conference for maybe 2-3 days, in fact the Corona has now given us some leeway, this conference can take place in the National Judicial Academy under the aegis of the Hon'ble Supreme Court or maybe at any other metropolitan city. Or we can have regional conferences where we have trained mediators who can train these teachers how to teach mediation because you cannot learn mediation only by going through a course book."
Considering that mediation can only be taught through practical training, he urged that like mediators, the professors should also undergo a 40 hours training programme. He recommended the inclusion of trained mediators and field experts in designing the books for the curriculum.
"There cannot be any other training except for the practical training in mediation, as all the mediators have undergone that 40 hours course, similarly what I suggest is that the teachers should also undergo that course….My take on this issue is that the teacher should be taught in a methodical way, they should undergo that mandatory training of 40 hours and apart from that while designing the course books all the trained mediators who have large experience in this field there inputs should be taken and live case study should be taught."
He took the discourse further by stating that it would be the responsibility of the professor to inform the students that mediation is not against advocates, which he felt is an existing perception in the profession. Recalling an incident when mediation was first introduced in Tis Hazari, he made aware that the lawyers did not take it up in the correct light and destroyed the furniture at the mediation centre. Justice Singh talked about the lawyers taking initiative to propose mediation in their matters, so that it can be resolved in a shorter span of time.
"Apart from that the skills which are required for trained mediators they must also know, what message they have to carry, because it is not something that is against the advocates as the speaker before me has emphasised. This is, I remember when we started mediation for the first time in the Tis Hazari Court in Delhi the lawyers came...they had destroyed, I think the entire furniture in the mediation centre because they thought this is something anti-advocate. Now the time has come that every lawyer requests that I should be there on the mediation panel or my case should be referred to mediation because this is the fastest way of solving the dispute."
Need to educate the litigants about mediation to make our justice system more effective : Justice GS Kulkarni, Judge, Bombay High Court
Expressing views on the need to educate litigants, Justice G.S. Kulkarni [Judge, Bombay High Court] affirmed that litigants ought to have a fair idea about the process and the benefits of mediation to view it as a viable alternative.
"I am certainly of the view that a fair idea as to what would be the concept of mediation has to be given to the litigants. Now, in our traditional system the litigants are mostly aware of the adversarial form, that they have to go to the court and the legal journey starts for any dispute."
He voiced his opinion on the need to sensitize and educate the lawyers, so that they can make the litigants aware of the advantages of meditation and also spell out the short-comings of the adversarial system. On receiving a brief, the approach should be to first figure out if mediation is possible or not.
"So, when a brief comes to a lawyer he should be ready for all these new situations that first whether a mediation is possible in the given kind of dispute- maybe a commercial dispute, maybe a family dispute, IPR dispute or any other form of dispute which can be resolved in mediation. So, to give a fair idea as to what this process of mediation is being made aware to the litigants then definitely there is a likelihood that the mindset would change."
Justice Kulkari culled out the knowledge that needed to be urgently shared with the litigants. They should be made aware of the participative character of mediation, the informal dialogue between the parties, exercising their complete autonomy in the process, and involvement of field experts.
"The what is to be informed to the litigants and possibly those who are not aware of the benefits of mediation - the participative character of mediation, the informalness in which the disputes can be discussed with open mind, complete freedom to the parties to express themselves on all issues which might not be possible in an arbitration or our regular litigation in the court, when the court only hears the lawyers. Then the involvement of experts in mediation assuming that it is an accounting dispute or assuming that it is a family dispute - you have one expert, the psychological expert, psychiatrist can be brought, his opinion can be taken. Assuming that it is a technical dispute, a technical expert say an engineer or in other technical branch can be involved and that is how things can be resolved. So, I think the concept of mediation is far broader than what we would have in an actual adversarial system in court or also in the arbitration though it is an alternative form of dispute resolution."
Referring to the mandate of mediation in the amended Commercial Courts Act, he enlightened the participants that in Bombay mediation has been widely resorted to in order to settle matters.
"This is also statutorily recognized as pointed out by Justice Kohli, that in the amendment to the Commercial Courts Act in 2018 a compulsory mediation and a period of three months after the execution of a suit where there is no urgency has been mandated and parties definitely in commercial disputes can now explore and many matter, at least now in Bombay we have seen many of the matters are getting settle."
The Bombay High Court has encouraged the lower court judges to adopt mediation wherever possible. At present all the judges in lower courts who deal directly with suits are trained mediators. The attempt, he asserted, is to recommend the trial court judges to identify, from the first reading of the plaint, if mediation is possible and thereafter decide accordingly.
"As a High Court we have also encouraged mediation in our trial courts. All over the trial judges who are handling suits directly are trained mediators. They have a compulsory mediation training and as a portfolio head many of the districts that I have been so far in the journey on this judicial side I have seen to it and I have impressed upon the trial court judges that please make little extra effort. From the reading of the plaint, you come to know that yes this is a dispute that can certainly be settled."
He narrated an incident where there was some serious dispute amongst the family members, who ran a well known bakery business in Mumbai. At the first glance, the matter appeared to be one that could be settled by mediation. Accordingly, he had referred it to mediation and has witnessed resounding success.
"There was an arbitration matter before me, the court was more on Section 9 petition. The dispute was between the members of the family who have large businesses in Mumbai and the main business which was the bakery business, the bread. So, the famous logo is that Bombay rises with their bread in the morning, and it has been a very old business for more than about 60 -70 years. Now there was a very serious dispute and the parties had taken such contesting positions that it was very difficult, then I saw the dispute, it was argued before me for about half an hour, 45 mins. I saw that they are not looking face to face..so why not suggest to them. Fortunately the immediately lawyers accepted. I told them why don't you have a panel. I suggested to them let there be a former Chief Justice of our High Court, the senior advocate as an accountant. Let them sit down and at least apply their mind and if these are your issues it can be sorted out and some method was given to them they can proceed in that manner. And I must tell you, I could never believe that such a dispute could be resolved, in three sittings the entire dispute was resolved, consent terms were filed before the court and I could see the smile and happiness on the faces of all the litigants who were present in the court."
Other ways in which education on mediation can be made more effective in the country : Justice Muhamed Mustaque
Appositely, it was pointed out by Justice A Muhamed Mustaque [Judge, Kerala High Court] that the discussion around mediation is yet to mature. He was concerned that the approach is still to replicate the experience of the adversarial litigation in the mediation process.
"When we are talking about mediation we try to replicate the same manner which we experience with our adversarial litigation. I think that is the biggest problem we face. Even I looked at the first flesh of the new enactment, and I also thought that it is the same approach."
Instead of restricting it to the college curriculum, opening up the discourse to the people at large, imbibing it in the cultural values, he thought, would enhance the progress of mediation.
"One should not confine education within the classrooms, on academic syllabus for law students, it is for the people to take it forward and bring a transformation as a cultural value."
Mediation be made available at every district of our country through a trained conciliator : Justice Vivek Rusia, Judge, MP High Court
Acknowledging the importance of community mediation, Justice Vivek Rusia [Judge, Madhya Pradesh High Court] apprised the participants of the initiative taken by the Madhya Pradesh High Court and Madhya Pradesh State Legal Services Authority to train representatives of communities as mediators. He was happy to announce that 30 communities in Indore participated in the first introductory session and have shown immense interest. The community members have sent names of their volunteers and the training would commence at the earliest. He informed that in the other parts of Madhya Pradesh, 175 community mediators have been trained and 12 communities have already started 28 mediation centres.
"The concept that every person belongs to a community or reason that he follows its rules, regulation and customs of his region. In case of dispute with his own family member or community member, any trained person of that community acts as a mediator in that dispute he will easily resolve that dispute. With that idea our HC and MP State Legal Services Authority started this project in the name of community mediation. The Chief Justice has constituted mediation monitoring sub-committees at Jabalpur, Indore and Gwalior Bench. I am in-charge of sub-committee, Indore. Last month we invited members and representatives of all the communities in the High Court Conference Hall. I am happy to inform you that representatives of as many as 30 communities participated in that first introductory session. They were so happy and excited to know that such a proposal is coming from the High Court. Some of them told that they are already doing this mediation in their community, but they had no idea that this is having some recognition under the law. They have agreed to send their volunteers for 20 hours of training and thereafter they will provide basic facilities in their community, building and premises. They have sent us the names of 75 volunteers and we are going to start their training by tomorrow. In other parts of the state we have already trained 175 community mediators from different communities. At least 12 communities ...have trained their 176 mediators and started 28 mediation centres."
Taking Mediation to the schools : Justice M Govindaraj, Judge, Madras High Court
The idea of taking mediation to the school level was appreciated by Justice M. Govindaraj [Judge, Madras High Court], who thought it to be an innovative idea. According to him, inculcating the values of mediation in the children would have a long lasting effect.
"It is a very innovative idea, we should take it to the students. Information is strength, normally imbibing whatever thought, the school children it will have a long lasting effect, they will remember it forever. See that the students when they start at their initial levels they will remember it...Teaching the children through moral education or different sources...these things will always remember in their mind when you introduce the concept of litigation and mediation, it will stay in their mind."
Apart from being taught, he believed that mediation should be practiced in schools, which would provide practical exposure to the students. He also talked of taking meditation to the Parent Teachers Association , so that they are also made aware of the process of mediation.
"While teaching the students, schools can form committees. Mediating can be practiced in the schools that will give a long lasting impression on the students...Now the introduction of mediation in school levels - in primary and secondary schools and practicing it in their schools will definitely help, it is a very welcome idea for introducing mediation in school levels, so that the learning and reading would be very easy. I would say one step further, it can be taken to the Parent Teacher Association also, both teachers and parents would be informed of mediation so that it would be practiced and that will bring harmony in the society from the grassroots level."
Justice Bharatha Chakarvarthy [Judge, Madras High Court], who before being elevated was associated with EMW, provided his valuable insights being closely associated with research in the field of mediation. He enlightened the participants about the prevalence of the practice of school mediation across the globe. Nordic countries have school mediation based on the restorative justice model, whereas Greece has the concept of peer mediation. In New Zealand the schools which provide school mediation are called 'Cool Schools'. He emphasised that in all these countries the practice of school mediation has been quite successful.
"For a chapter on community mediation on Chitra's book we had undertaken a study world over. The Nordic countries namely Finland, Denmark, Switzerland they have school mediation throughout in every school. In Finland it was started in the year 2000, it is working very very well. In New Zealand this project is called 'Cool Schools'. Whenever, the mediation concept is there the school is also titled as 'Cool School'. So it has taken off there very well. In Greece this concept of peer mediation is there. The difference is that the Nordic countries are having it on the restorative justice model, so wherever there is violence between the students they exactly like restorative justice take an apology and then they make the victim to compensate. This is working very well. In our country it is very much needed for those of us who have especially undergone law courses."
Justice Chakarvarthy further appraised the participants that around the world, bullying in schools are referred to peer-mediations, because a student mediator can communicate effectively within their peer groups. He believed that inculcating the principles of mediation at the school and college levels would facilitate in imbibing the knowledge of mediation in our culture.
"Throughout the world, bullying and these other related nuisances in school is a very good candidate for mediation. World over this bullying is referred to mediation only by way of peer mediation, not through elder or teacher mediation. Peer mediation works better- a student mediator can communicate between the students better and if you inculcate that knowledge at school level, college level it becomes culture."
Suitable candidates to serve as community mediators : Justice Kalyan Rai Surana, judge, Gauhati HC
Addressing the above-titled issue, Justice Kalyan Rai Surana [Judge, Gauhati High Court] provided a background to community mediation, which was introduced in 2009 by the then Chief Justice of India.
"In so far as community mediation was concerned, it was started on 17th January, 2009 by the Hon'ble Chief Justice of India in New Delhi and the idea has been picked up and it has been followed by various organisations."
He observed that Guwahati High Court Rules, 2007 which provided for civil procedure mediation did not take into consideration community mediation. He recognised the importance of community mediation and the role of village elders and people of the community. Acknowledging that, at the end of the day India is still divided along the lines of community and caste, he thought it best to bestow the responsibility to mediate disputes on the elders of the particular caste or community.
"In this part, under our Guwahati High Court Rules of 2007 we have civil procedure mediation where we have not taken care of the community mediation, and it refers only to mediation done through the court system where under the rules we have prescribed people having qualification to be empaneled as a mediator. Having heard brother Justice Chakravarthy Dass ji I think we have to acknowledge the importance of community mediation and I think the village elders and people of the community, because in India we are still divided on community and caste basis and only the elders members of the same community or caste would be the ideal person to take mediation on issues which are otherwise not covered by the civil procedure meditation."