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500 Supreme Court Judgments of 2022 (Citations 101 - 200)

LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK
18 Jun 2022 7:20 AM GMT
500 Supreme Court Judgments of 2022 (Citations 101 - 200)
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See Also: 500 Supreme Court Judgments of 2022 [Citations 1 to 100] Rent Control Laws - Jurisdiction of civil courts are excluded from landlord-tenant disputes when they are specifically covered by the provisions of the State Rent Acts, which are given an overriding effect over other laws. (Para 20) Subhash Chander v. Bharat Petroleum Corporation, 2022 LiveLaw (SC)...

See Also: 500 Supreme Court Judgments of 2022 [Citations 1 to 100]

  1. Rent Control Laws - Jurisdiction of civil courts are excluded from landlord-tenant disputes when they are specifically covered by the provisions of the State Rent Acts, which are given an overriding effect over other laws. (Para 20) Subhash Chander v. Bharat Petroleum Corporation, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 101
  2. Workmen's Compensation Act, 1923; Section 4A - Interest shall be paid on the compensation awarded from the date of the accident and not the date of adjudication of the claim. (Para 5) Ajaya Kumar Das v. Divisional Manager, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 102
  3. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 439 - While granting bail, the relevant considerations are, (i) nature of seriousness of the offence; (ii) character of the evidence and 18 circumstances which are peculiar to the accused; and (iii) likelihood of the accused fleeing from justice; (iv) the impact that his release may make on the prosecution witnesses, its impact on the society; and (v) likelihood of his tampering. Centrum Financial Services v. State of NCT of Delhi, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 103
  4. Partnership Act, 1932 - To attract the bar of Section 69(2) of the Act of 1932, the contract in question must be the one entered into by firm with the third-party defendant and must also be the one entered into by the plaintiff firm in the course of its business dealings; and that Section 69(2) of the Act of 1932 is not a bar to a suit filed by an unregistered firm, if the same is for enforcement of a statutory right or a common law right. (Para 15) Shiv Developers v. Aksharay Developers, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 104
  5. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 226 - Judicial Review - Interpretation of Tender- The author of the tender document is taken to be the best person to understand and appreciate its requirements- If its interpretation is manifestly in consonance with the language of the tender document or subserving the purchase of the tender, the Court would prefer to keep restraint- The technical evaluation or comparison by the Court is impermissible. (Para 17) Agmatel India Pvt. Ltd. v. Resoursys Telecom, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 105
  6. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 482 - When the dispute in question is purely civil in nature, the adoption of remedy in a criminal court would amount to abuse of the process of Court. Jayahari v. State of Kerala, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 106
  7. Criminal Trial - The test which is applied of proving the case beyond reasonable doubt does not mean that the endeavour should be to nick pick and somehow find some excuse to obtain acquittal. (Para 36) Pappu Tiwary v. State of Jharkhand, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 107
  8. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 226 - Judicial Review - Contractual Matters - The scope of judicial review in such foreign funded contracts should be far much less than the ordinary Government funded contracts funded from Consolidated Fund of India. The scope of judicial review in such foreign funded contracts/projects would be restricted and minimal. In such foreign funded contracts, the only ground for judicial review ought to be on a limited aspect, i.e., the action of the executing authority does not suffer from favouritism or nepotism and based on the grounds which have been concealed from the foreign financing authority, if disclosed, would have persuaded the financing authority to cancel the contract. (Para 11) National High Speed Rail Corporation Ltd. v. Montecarlo Ltd; 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 108
  9. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 226- Judicial Review- Disciplinary Proceedings - Where the findings of the disciplinary authority are not based on evidence, or based on a consideration of irrelevant material, or ignoring relevant material, are mala fide, or where the findings are perverse or such that they could not have been rendered by any reasonable person placed in like circumstances, the remedies under Article 226 of the Constitution are available, and intervention, warranted. (Para 19) United Bank of India V. Biswanath Bhattacharjee, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 109
  10. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973- Section 482 - At the stage when the High Court considers a petition for quashing criminal proceedings under Section 482 of the CrPC, the allegations in the FIR must be read as they stand and it is only if on the face of the allegations that no offence, as alleged, has been made out, that the Court may be justified in exercising its jurisdiction to quash. (Para 6) Veena Mittal v State of Uttar Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 110
  11. Evidence Act, 1872; Section 32 - Dying Declaration - There can be a conviction solely based upon the dying declaration without corroboration - If the Court is satisfied that the dying declaration is true and voluntary it can base its conviction on it, without corroboration. State of U.P. v. Veerpal, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 111
  12. Land Acquisition Act, 1894 - Market Value - It is not the nature of land which alone is determinative of the market value of the land. The market value must be determined keeping in view the various factors including proximity to the developed area and the road etc. (Para 11) Madhukar Govindrao Kamble v. Vidarbha Irrigation Development Corp.,2022 LiveLaw (SC) 112
  13. Constitution of India, 1950 - Manipur Assembly passed the Manipur Parliamentary Secretary (Appointment, Salary and Allowances and Miscellaneous Provisions) Repealing Act, 2018 - The Manipur Legislature was competent to enact the Repealing Act, 2018. The saving clause in the Repealing Act, 2018 is struck down. However, this shall not affect the acts, deeds and decisions duly undertaken by the Parliamentary Secretaries under the 2012 Act till discontinuation of their appointments, which are hereby saved. (Para 26) State of Manipur v. Surjakumar Okram, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 113
  14. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 226 - Natural justice - Natural justice is an important facet of a judicial review. Providing effective natural justice to affected parties, before a decision is taken, is necessary to maintain the Rule of law. Natural justice is usually discussed in the context of administrative actions, wherein procedural requirement of a fair hearing is read in to ensure that no injustice is caused. When it comes to judicial review, the natural justice principle is built into the rules and procedures of the Court, which are expected to be followed meticulously to ensure that highest standards of fairness are afforded to the parties. (Para 36) Future Coupons Pvt. Ltd. v. Amazon.com NV Investment Holdings LLC, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 114
  15. Hindu Succession Act, 1956; Section 14(1) - The objective of Section 14(1) is to create an absolute interest in case of a limited interest of the wife where such limited estate owes its origin to law as it stood then. The objective cannot be that a Hindu male who owned self -acquired property is unable to execute a Will giving a limited estate to a wife if all other aspects including maintenance are taken care of. If we were to hold so it would imply that if the wife is disinherited under the Will it would be sustainable but if a limited estate is given it would mature into an absolute interest irrespective of the intent of the testator. (Para 31) Jogi Ram v. Suresh Kumar, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 115
  16. Army Act, 1950; Section 125 - The criminal court will have jurisdiction to try a case against an army personnel if the Commanding Officer does not exercise the discretion under Section 125 of the Army Act to initiate court -martial with respect to the offence - If the designated officer does not exercise this discretion to institute proceedings before a court -martial, the Army Act would not interdict the exercise of jurisdiction by the ordinary criminal court. (Para 30) State of Sikkim v. Jasbir Singh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 116
  17. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 14 - Every action of a State is required to be guided by the touchstone of non­arbitrariness, reasonableness and rationality. Every action of a State is equally required to be guided by public interest. Every holder of a public office is a trustee, whose highest duty is to the people of the country. The Public Authority is therefore required to exercise the powers only for the public good. (Para 100) Southern Power Distribution Power Company Ltd. v. Hinduja National Power Corporation Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 117
  18. Premature Release Policy - Validity of clause prescribing a minimum age of 60 years which would imply that a young offender of 20 years will have to serve 40 years before his case for remission can be considered - Implies that a young offender of 20 years will have to serve 40 years before his case for remission can be considered - The State Government to re-examine this part of the Policy which prima-facie does not seems to be sustainable. Mata Prasad vs State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 118
  19. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 136 - Special Leave Petition against a review order alone is not maintainable. (Para 3) R.K. Singh vs General Manager, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 119
  20. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996; Section 11 - While dealing with petition under Section 11, the Court by default would refer the matter when contentions relating to non arbitrability are plainly arguable. In such case, the issue of non arbitrability is left open to be decided by the Arbitral Tribunal. (Para 11) Mohammed Masroor Shaikh v. Bharat Bhushan Gupta, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 120
  21. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996; Section 34 - Patent Illegality - An Arbitral Tribunal being a creature of contract, is bound to act in terms of the contract under which it is constituted. An award can be said to be patently illegal where the Arbitral Tribunal has failed to act in terms of the contract or has ignored the specific terms of a contract. (Para 44) Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. v. Shree Ganesh Petroleum Rajgurunagar, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 121
  22. National Security Act, 1980; Section 8 - The failure of the Central and the State governments to communicate the rejection of the representation in a time bound manner would vitiate the order of detention. (Para 10) Devesh Chourasia v. District Magistrate, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 122
  23. Land Acquisition Act, 1894 – Section 28A – Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 - An Award passed under Section 20 of the 1987 Act by the Lok Adalat cannot be the basis for invoking Section 28A. (Para 49) New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (Noida) v. Yunus, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 123
  24. National Green Tribunal Act, 2010; Section 14 and 15 - The NGT cannot abdicate its jurisdiction by entrusting these core adjudicatory functions to administrative expert committees. Expert committees may be appointed to assist the NGT in the performance of its task and as an adjunct to its fact-finding role. But adjudication under the statute is entrusted to the NGT and cannot be delegated to administrative authorities. (Para 16) Kantha Vibhag Yuva Koli Samaj Parivartan Trust v. State of Gujarat, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 124
  25. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 142 - The issue whether a Judge sitting singly can pass an order granting decree of divorce to the parties on the basis of the Settlement Agreement in exercise of powers conferred under Article 142 of the Constitution of India referred for adjudication by a larger Bench. (Para 2) Anamika Varun Rathore v. Varun Pratap Singh Rathore, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 125
  26. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 389 - Seeking relief of suspension of execution of sentence and to be released on bail is the statutory right of the appellant and there is no warrant for such a proposition that any appellant be debarred, from renewing his prayer for suspension of execution of sentence, for a particular period. As to whether such a prayer is to be granted or not is a matter entirely different but such kind of time-specific debarment is not envisaged by the law. (Para 3, 4) Krishan Kumar v. State of Haryana, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 126
  27. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908; Section 151 - Order XXIII Rule 3 - Even assuming there is a mistake, a consent decree cannot be modified/ altered unless the mistake is a patent or obvious mistake. Or else, there is a danger of every consent decree being sought to be altered on the ground of mistake/ misunderstanding by a party to the consent decree. (Para 13) Ajanta LLP v. Casio, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 127
  28. Service Law - Premature Retirement - The entire service record is to be taken into consideration which would include the ACRs of the period prior to the promotion. The order of premature retirement is required to be passed on the basis of entire service records, though the recent reports would carry their own weight. (Para 15) Central Industrial Security Force v. HC (GD) Om Prakas, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 128
  29. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 – Section 5(20) and 5(21) - Operational Debt - Operational Creditor - A debt which arises out of advance payment made to a corporate debtor for supply of goods or services would be considered as an operational debt - The phrase "in respect of" in Section 5(21) has to be interpreted in a broad and purposive manner in order to include all those who provide or receive operational services from the corporate debtor, which ultimately lead to an operational debt. (Para 43, 45) Consolidated Construction Consortium Ltd. v. Hitro Energy Solutions Pvt. Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 129
  30. Industrial Disputes Act,1947; Section 33C(2) - Not open for the Labour Court to entertain disputed questions and adjudicate upon the employer - employee relationship - In an application under Section 33C(2) of the Industrial Disputes Act, the Labour Court has no jurisdiction and cannot adjudicate dispute of entitlement or the basis of the claim of workmen. It can only interpret the award or settlement on which the claim is based. (Para 6) Bombay Chemical Industries v. Deputy Labour Commissioner, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 130
  31. Penal Code, 1860; Section 300 - The fact that the accused gave several blows/multiple blows on the vital part of the body – head which resulted into grievous injuries and he used "Phakadiyat" with such a force which resulted in Skull fracture and a frontal wound on left side and wounds with 34 stitches on the left side of the skull extended from mid of the left side of the skull along with coronal sutures of 16 cm, we are of the opinion that the case would fall under Clauses thirdly and fourthly of Section 300 IPC. (Para 7) State of Uttarakhand v. Sachendra Singh Rawat, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 131
  32. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 482 - Quashing of FIR - Case of fabrication of documents can't be quashed saying there is no revenue loss to state. Missu Naseem v. State of Andhra Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 132
  33. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 136 - Bail - The application filed by the petitioner having been dismissed as not pressed, the question of interference by this Court in exercise of power under Article 136 of the Constitution of India cannot and does not arise. Santo Devi v. State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 133
  34. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 - Sections 227, 164 - Discrepancies between the FIR and any subsequent statement under Section 164 of the CrPC may be a defence. However, the discrepancies cannot be a ground for discharge without initiation of trial. Hazrat Deen v. State of Uttar Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 134
  35. Consumer Law - Transfer Petition filed seeking transfer of consumer complaints pending before Consumer fora to Bombay High Court - Dismissed - The consumer complaints are filed under the Consumer Protection Act, therefore, such consumer complaints cannot be transferred to the High Court exercising the jurisdiction under Article 226 of the Constitution of India. Yes bank v. 63 Moons Technologies Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 135
  36. Wakf Act, 1995; Section 32 and 40 - The Wakf Board has power to determine the nature of the property as wakf under Section 32(2)(n) but after complying with the procedure prescribed as contained in Section 40. Such procedure categorically prescribes an inquiry to be conducted. The conduct of inquiry pre -supposes compliance of the principles of natural justice so as to give opportunity of hearing to the affected parties. (Para 146) State of Andhra Pradesh v. A.P. State Wakf Board, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 136
  37. Criminal Trial - Long adjournments being given after the completion of the chief examination, only helps the defense to win them over at times, with the passage of time - The trial courts shall endeavor to complete the examination of the private witnesses both chief and cross on the same day as far as possible - The trial courts to take up the examination of the private witnesses first, before proceeding with that of the official witnesses. (Para 39) Rajesh Yadav v. State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 137
  38. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 167(2) Proviso - Default Bail - Filing of a charge -sheet is sufficient compliance with the provisions of Section 167 CrPC - An accused cannot demand release on default bail under Section 167(2) on the ground that cognizance has not been taken before the expiry of 60 days. (Para 10) Serious Fraud Investigation Office v. Rahul Modi, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 138
  39. Banking Law - Bank's Liability for acts of employees - What is relevant is whether the crime, in the form of fraud etc., was perpetrated by the servant/employee during the course of his employment. Once this is established, the employer would be liable for the employee's wrongful act, even if they amount to a crime. Whether the fraud is committed during the course of employment would be a question of fact that needs to be determined in the facts and circumstances of the case. (Para 38) Pradeep Kumar v. Post Master General, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 139
  40. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 14 - There is no negative equality - If there has been a benefit or advantage conferred on one or a set of people, without legal basis or justification, that benefit cannot multiply, or be relied upon as a principle of parity or equality. (Para 24) R. Muthukumar v. Chairman and Managing Director Tangedco, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 140
  41. Penal Code, 1860; Section 498A - Allowing prosecution in the absence of clear allegations against relatives of husband would simply result in an abuse of the process of law - If allegations made against them are general and omnibus, they do not warrant prosecution. (Para 19 - 21) Kahkashan Kausar @ Sonam v. State of Bihar, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 141
  42. Protection of Children From Sexual Offences Act, 2012 - No leniency can be shown to an accused who has committed the offences under the POCSO Act, 2012 and particularly when the same is proved by adequate evidence before a court of law - By awarding a suitable punishment commensurate with the act of sexual assault, sexual harassment, a message must be conveyed to the society at large that, if anybody commits any offence under the POCSO Act of sexual assault, sexual harassment or use of children for pornographic purposes they shall be punished suitably and no leniency shall be shown to them. (Para 10) Nawabuddin v. State of Uttarakhand, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 142
  43. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 - Order XXIII Rule 3A - A party to a consent decree based on a compromise to challenge the compromise decree on the ground that the decree was not lawful i.e., it was void or voidable has to approach the same court, which recorded the compromise and a separate suit challenging the consent decree has been held to be not maintainable. (Para 8) Sree Surya Developers and Promoters v. N. Sailesh Prasad, 2022 LiveLaw SC 143
  44. Penal Code, 1860 – Section 300 and 376 – Rape and Murder - Death Sentence - Abhorrent nature of crime alone cannot be the decisive factor for awarding death sentence - Due consideration to be given to the equally relevant aspect pertaining to mitigating factors before arriving at a conclusion that option of any other punishment than the capital one was foreclosed. (Para 42) Pappu v. State of Uttar Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 144
  45. Service Law - CUSAT - Director/HOD of Cochin University a teacher who was being considered for HOD on a rational basis would not be prohibited from being considered for appointment when second rotational term becomes due if he/she during the first term makes a request of being relieved from the responsibility for academic reason. Dr. Jagathy Raj V.P. v. Dr. Rajitha Kumar S., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 145
  46. Anticipatory bail granted to Trinamool Congress leader Sheikh Sufiyan in a case relating to the murder of a BJP supporter during the West Bengal post -poll violence. Sk. Supiyan @ Suffiyan @ Supisan v. Central Bureau of Investigation, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 146
  47. Covid -19 - Vaccination - Centre's affidavit to the effect that production of an Aadhar card is not a mandatory pre -condition for availing of vaccination facilities - All concerned authorities shall act in pursuance of the stated policy. (Para 6) Siddharthshankar Sharma v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 147
  48. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 - Order XIV Rule 2 - If the determination of the issue of limitation is not a pure question of law, it cannot be decided as preliminary issue. (Para 15) Mongia Realty and Buildwell Pvt. Ltd. v. Manik Sethi, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 148
  49. Covid 19 - Performance of Dokhmenashini or funeral rights in the Dokhmas belonging to the Parsi Zoroastrian community - Agreed Protocol & Standard Operating Procedure For Handling Dead Bodies Of Parsi Zoroastrian Covid -19 Victims - Protocol and the Standard Operating Procedure comports with the tenets of the Zoroastrian faith, while according with the need expressed by the Union government for the maintenance of safety and hygiene in the context of the Covid -19 pandemic. Surat Parsi Panchayat Board v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 149
  50. Judicial Service - The writ petitioner alleged that hostile transfer orders were passed as she did not act as per the demands of the supervising High Court judge. She complained that was faced with transfer from a Category 'A' city to Category 'C' city and also a Naxal affected area, in violation of the extant transfer policy of the High Court. Since the transfer would have prevented her from being with her daughter who was then appearing for the board exams, she was faced with no option but to resign. Later, she approached the Supreme Court asserting her right to be reinstated. The Supreme Court Held: Though, it may not be possible to observe that the petitioner was forced to resign, however, the circumstances would clearly reveal that they were such, that out of frustration, the petitioner was left with no other alternative. The petitioner's resignation from the post of Additional District & Sessions Judge, Gwalior dated 15th July 2014, cannot be construed to be voluntary and as such, the order dated 17th July 2014, passed by the respondent No. 2, thereby accepting the resignation of the petitioner, is quashed and set aside; and the respondents are directed to re­instate the petitioner forthwith as an Additional District & Sessions Judge. Though the petitioner would not be entitled to back wages, she would be entitled for continuity in service with all consequential benefits with effect from 15th July 2014. Ms. X v. Registrar General, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 150
  51. Swatantrata Sainik Samman Pension Scheme, 1980 - Those persons who had participated in the freedom struggle of our country, because of which we got independence, should certainly be honoured and if they are entitled to any benefits, which includes pension, they should definitely be provided such benefit. However, such benefits should be awarded only to those persons who are entitled for the same under any Scheme of the Government. State of Madhya Pradesh v. Krishna Modi, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 151
  52. Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 - Motor Accident Compensation - Method of determination of compensation applying two multipliers is clearly erroneous - The age of the deceased should be the basis for applying the multiplier. R. Valli v. Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 152
  53. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 482 - Quashing of FIR - Although it is true that it was not open for the Court to embark upon any enquiry as to the reliability or genuineness of the allegations made in the FIR, but at least there has to be some factual supporting material for what has been alleged in the FIR. (Para 19) Shafiya Khan @ Shakuntala Prajapati v. State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 153
  54. Insurance Law - The vehicle of the complainant (the insured) which was insured with Insurance Company was robbed. The next day, an FIR was registered by him. Accused were arrested and challan filed. Thereafter, the complainant lodged the insurance claim. The same was repudiated on the ground that there was a delay in intimating the Insurance Company about the occurrence of the theft. Though District Forum and State Consumer Commission allowed the complaint - NCDRC dismissed it by allowing insurer's revision petition. Allowing the appeal, the Supreme Court set aside the NCDRC order and upheld the State Commission order. Jaina Construction Company v. Oriental Insurance Company Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 154
  55. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 226 - Judicial Review of Disciplinary Proceedings - Limited Jurisdiction - The High Court is not required to reappreciate the evidence and/or interfere with the findings recorded by the inquiry officer accepted by the disciplinary authority. (Para 4) Umesh Kumar Pahwa v. Uttarakhand Gramin Bank, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 155
  56. Law of Precedent - Constitution Bench Judgment - Once the majority opines in a particular matter, that is the judgment of the Constitution Bench. (Para 3) Ravindra v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 156
  57. Penal Code, 1860; Section 354 - Accused was convicted under Section 354 IPC - Sessions Court/ High Court dismissed his appeal/revision - Before Apex Court the accused submitted that a compromise has been entered into between him and the complainant/victim - Dismissing his SLP, the Supreme Court held: No reason to grant any credence to such compromise which is being entered into after the conviction has been confirmed by the High Court. Bimal Chandra Ghosh v. State of Tripura, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 157
  58. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988; Section 17A - Section 17A does not have retrospective operation - It could not possibly have been the intent of the legislature that all pending investigations upto July, 2018 should be rendered infructuous. (Para 11 -12) State of Rajasthan v. Tejmal Choudhary, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 158
  59. Land Acquisition Act, 1894; Section 23(1) - Injurious affection to property, in any other manner, may stand on a different footing from injurious affection to earnings. (Para 78) Walchandnagar Industries Ltd. v. State of Maharashtra, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 159
  60. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908; Section 153A - The Trial Court has no jurisdiction to entertain the application for correction of decree passed by the High Court in the first appeal and cross objection - In such a case, the application for correction could be maintained only before the High Court where the decree has been finally confirmed. B. Boraiah v. M.G. Thirthaprasad, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 160
  61. Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002; Section 5(1) - The fact that the provisional attachment order is set aside by the High Court, does not per se result in nullifying the adjudication proceedings, which, can proceed and need to be taken to its logical end by the Adjudicating Authority in accordance with law. Kaushalya Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 161
  62. Commercial Courts Act, 2015; Section 16 - Code of Civil Procedure, 1908; Order V Rule 1, Order VIII Rule 1 and Order VIII Rule 10 CPC - The orders passed by the Supreme Court on 23.03.2020, 06.05.2020, 10.07.2020, 27.04.2021 and 23.09.2021 in SMWP No. 3 of 2020 applies in relation to the period prescribed for filing the written statement - Unrealistic and illogical to assume that while the Court has provided for exclusion of period for institution of the suit and therefore, a suit otherwise filed beyond limitation (if the limitation had expired between 15.03.2020 to 02.10.2021) could still be filed within 90 days from 03.10.2021 but the period for filing written statement, if expired during that period, has to operate against the defendant - the period envisaged finally in the order dated 23.09.2021 is required to be excluded in computing the period of limitation even for filing the written statement and even in cases where the delay is otherwise not condonable - The orders in SMWP No. 3 of 2020 were of extraordinary measures in extraordinary circumstances and their operation cannot be curtailed with reference to the ordinary operation of law. (Para 20.2) Prakash Corporates v. Dee Vee Projects Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 162
  63. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996; Section 34 - The principle that a court while deciding a petition under Section 34 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act has no jurisdiction to remand the matter to the Arbitrator for a fresh decision would be applicable where the Appellate Court decides the application under Section 34 of the Act on merits - Even in a case where the award is set aside under Section 34 of the Act on whatever the grounds which may be available under Section 34 of the Act, in that case the parties can still agree for the fresh arbitration may be by the same arbitrator - When both the parties agreed to set aside the award and to remit the matter to the learned Sole Arbitrator for fresh reasoned Award, it is not open to contend that the matter may not be and/or ought not to have been remanded to the same sole arbitrator. (Para 8) Mutha Construction v. Strategic Brand Solutions (I) Pvt. Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 163
  64. Disciplinary Proceedings - Bank employee was dismissed after conducting a disciplinary proceedings - Appellate authority dismissed his appeal - Industrial Tribunal held that the punishment awarded to the employee of dismissal is not commensurate with the charge levelled against him - In writ petition filed against Tribunal order, the High Court refused to interfere with the Order for the reason that the respondent employee by that time had retired on attaining the age of superannuation in 2007. Allowing appeal, the Supreme Court upheld the dismissal order and observed: Merely because the employee stood superannuated in the meanwhile, will not absolve him from the misconduct which he had committed in discharge of his duties and looking into the nature of misconduct which he had committed, he was not entitled for any indulgence. (Para 11) United Bank of India v. Bachan Prasad Lall, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 164
  65. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 - Order II Rule 2, 3 - Joinder of causes of action - Order II Rule 3 does not compel a plaintiff to join two or more causes of action in a single suit. The failure to join together all claims arising from a cause of action will be visited with consequences proclaimed in Order II Rule 2 - The Code of Civil Procedure indeed permits a plaintiff to join causes of action but it does not compel a plaintiff to do so. (Para 16, 17) B.R. Patil v. Tulsa Y. Sawkar, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 165
  66. Partnership Act, 1932; Section 30(5) - Sub -Section (5) of Section 30 shall not be applicable to a minor partner who was not a partner at the time of his attaining the majority and, thereafter, he shall not be liable for any past dues of the partnership firm when he was a partner being a minor. (Para 6) State of Kerala v. Laxmi Vasanth, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 166
  67. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; Section 13(1) (ib) - Desertion means the intentional abandonment of one spouse by the other without the consent of the other and without a reasonable cause. The deserted spouse must prove that there is a factum of separation and there is an intention on the part of deserting spouse to bring the cohabitation to a permanent end - There should be animus deserendi on the part of the deserting spouse. There must be an absence of consent on the part of the deserted spouse and the conduct of the deserted spouse should not give a reasonable cause to the deserting spouse to leave the matrimonial home. (Para 7) Debananda Tamuli v. Smti Kakumoni Kataky, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 167
  68. Consumer Protection Act, 2019; Section 67 Proviso - Onerous condition of payment of 50% of the amount awarded will not be applicable to the complaints filed prior to the commencement of the 2019 Act. (Para 34) ECGC Ltd. v. Mokul Shriram EPC JV, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 168
  69. Evidence Act, 1872; Section 106 - Section 106 is not intended to relieve the prosecution from discharging its duty to prove the guilt of the accused - Burden could not be shifted on the accused by pressing into service the provisions contained in section 106 of the Evidence Act when the prosecution could not prove the basic facts as alleged against the accused. (Para 15 - 16) Satye Singh v. State of Uttarakhand, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 169
  70. Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000; Section 7A - The plea of juvenility has to be raised in a bonafide and truthful manner. If the reliance is on a document to seek juvenility which is not reliable or dubious in nature, the accused cannot be treated to be juvenile keeping in view that the Act is a beneficial legislation. (Para 38) Manoj @ Monu @ Vishal Chaudhary v. State of Haryana, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 170
  71. Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 - Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 - RERA authority has the jurisdiction to entertain a complaint by an aggrieved person against the bank as a secured creditor if the bank takes recourse to any of the provisions contained in Section 13(4) of the SARFAESI Act - This shall be applicable in a case where proceedings before the RERA authority are initiated by the homer buyers to protect their rights. Union Bank of India v. Rajasthan Real Estate Regulatory Authority, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 171
  72. Architects Act, 1972; Section 21, 45 - Minimum Standards of Architectural Education Regulations, 2017 - The Council of Architecture may prescribe minimum standards of architectural education, either by way of regulations issued under Section 45(2) or even otherwise. It is only in cases where the Council chooses to prescribe standards in the form of regulations that the requirement of approval of the Central Government under Section 45(1) would become necessary. (Para 15) Council of Architecture v. Academic Society of Architects (TASA), 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 172
  73. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985; Section 21 - The quantity of the neutral substance is not to be excluded and to be taken into consideration along with the actual content of the weight of the offending drug while determining small and commercial quantities. State of Himachal Pradesh v. Karuna Shanker Puri, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 173
  74. Motor Vehicles Act, 1988; Section 83 - Kerala Motor Vehicle Rules,1989; Rule 174(2)(c) - Rule 174(2)(c) which enables road transport authority to reject an application for replacement if the proposed vehicle is older than the one covered under the existing permit] is valid - Rule 174 (2) (c) is neither ultra vires the Act, nor has overridden Section 83 - Kerala HC Judgment in Regional Transport Authority vs. Shaju [ILR 2017 (3) Ker. 720] set aside. (Para 1, 23, 24) Regional Transport Authority v. Shaju, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 174
  75. Practice and Procedure - The High Courts not to make general observations which are not warranted in the case. The High Courts shall refrain from making sweeping observations which are beyond the contours of the controversy and/or issues before them. (Para 3) Union of India v. Bharat Fritz Werner Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 175
  76. Industrial Disputes Act, 1947 - Right of minority workmen to raise industrial dispute - A minority union of workers may raise an industrial dispute even if another union which consists of the majority of them enters into a settlement with the employer. (Para 20) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. v. President, Oil Field Employees Association, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 176
  77. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 14 - Policy Decision - The policy of the State of Rajasthan is that while selecting Nurse Compounder Junior Grade, the bonus marks are to be given to such employees who have done similar work under the State Government and under the various schemes - Whether such bonus marks would also be available to the contractual employees working under the NHM/NRHM schemes in other States - The policy of the State of Rajasthan to restrict the benefit of bonus marks only to such employees who have worked under different organizations in the State of Rajasthan and to employees working under the NHM/NRHM schemes in the State of Rajasthan, cannot be said to be arbitrary. (Para 22) Satya Dev Bhagaur v. State of Rajasthan, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 177
  78. Practice and Procedure - Stay of Legislation - Stay of legislation can only be when the Court is of the opinion that it is manifestly unjust or glaringly unconstitutional - Sufficient reasons should be given for staying legislations. State of Haryana v. Faridabad Industries Association, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 178
  79. Premature Release - Relevant Considerations - Prior criminal history, conduct and behaviour in jail, possible danger to society, etc. are relevant considerations - The application has to be considered on the basis of the policy as it stood on the date when the applicant was convicted of the offence. (Para 6, 7) Sharafat Ali v. State of Uttar Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 179
  80. Natural Justice - Principles of - Quasi Judicial Authority - A quasi -judicial authority has a duty to disclose the material that has been relied upon at the stage of adjudication - An ipse dixit of the authority that it has not relied on certain material would not exempt it of its liability to disclose such material if it is relevant to and has a nexus to the action that is taken by the authority. In all reasonable probability, such material would have influenced the decision reached by the authority - The actual test is whether the material that is required to be disclosed is relevant for purpose of adjudication. If it is, then the principles of natural justice require its due disclosure. (Para 39) T. Takano v. Securities and Exchange Board of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 180
  81. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 156(3) - Applications under Section 156 (3) of Cr.P.C. are to be supported by an affidavit duly sworn by the complainant - With such a requirement, the persons would be deterred from causally invoking authority of the Magistrate, under Section 156 (3) of the Cr.P.C. In as much as if the affidavit is found to be false, the person would be liable for prosecution in accordance with law. (Para 27 -29) Babu Venkatesh v. State of Karnataka, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 181
  82. Public Auction - The sale pursuant to the public auction can be set aside in an eventuality where it is found on the basis of material on record that the property had been sold away at a throw away price and/or on a wholly inadequate consideration because of the fraud and/or collusion and/or after any material irregularity and/or illegality is found in conducing/holding the public auction. After the public auction is held and the highest bid is received and the property is sold in a public auction in favour of a highest bidder, such a sale cannot be set aside on the basis of some offer made by third parties subsequently and that too when they did not participate in the auction proceedings and made any offer and/or the offer is made only for the sake of making it and without any serious intent. - If the auction/sale pursuant to the public auction is set aside on the basis of frivolous and irresponsible representations made by such persons then the sanctity of a public auction would be frustrated and the rights of a genuine bidder would be adversely affected. (Para 8.2) K. Kumara Gupta v. Sri Markendaya and Sri Omkareswara Swamy Temple, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 182
  83. Co -operative Societies Rules, 1961 (Maharashtra) - Rule 107(14) - Once the borrower failed to apply to the Recovery Officer to set aside the auction sale on the grounds of material irregularity, mistake or fraud in publishing or conducting the auction sale within a period of thirty days from the date of sale of immovable property, thereafter it was not open for the borrower to challenge the sale on the ground of material irregularity. (Para 7.1) Deenadayal Nagari Sahakari Bank Ltd. v. Munjaji, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 183
  84. Affidavits - Once an affidavit has been filed which is on the face of it false to the knowledge of the executants, no benefit can be claimed on the ground that delivery of possession was given. (Para 16) New Okhla Industrial Development Authority v. Ravindra Kumar Singhvi, 2022 LiveLaw SC 184
  85. Specific Relief Act, 1963; Section 21(5) - Whether compensation can be granted in lieu of specific performance unless claimed in the plaint - Supreme Court disallows claim for compensation as it was not specifically claimed in the plaint. Universal Petro Chemicals Ltd. v. B.P.PLC, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 185
  86. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 15 (1) and Article 19 (1) (g) - Gender cap as to the number of women or men, who can perform in orchestras and bands, in licenced bars is void - This restriction directly transgresses Article 15 (1) and Article 19 (1) (g) - the latter provision both in its effect to the performers as well as the license owners. While the overall limit of performers in any given performance cannot exceed eight, the composition (i.e., all female, majority female or male, or vice versa) can be of any combination. (Para 47, 49) Hotel Priya A Proprietorship v. State of Maharashtra, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 186
  87. Pension - High Court directed to pay pensionary benefits to an ad -hoc employee who has retired after rendering more than 30 years service - SLP filed by the State Dismissed - The State cannot be permitted to take the benefit of its own wrong. To take the Services continuously for 30 years and thereafter to contend that an employee who has rendered 30 years continuous service shall not be eligible for pension is nothing but unreasonable. As a welfare State, the State as such ought not to have taken such a stand. State of Gujarat v. Talsibhai Dhanjibhai Patel, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 187
  88. Central Electricity Authority (Measures relating to Safety and Electric Supply) Regulations, 2010 - Regulation 116 - The width and amplitude of Regulation 116 cannot be restricted by interpreting the word 'deviation' as having lesser scope than exemption. 'Deviation' from the Regulations would amount to either exemption or relaxation. Therefore, we are in agreement with the Division Bench that the order dated 13.02.2019 cannot be said to have been issued beyond the power conferred by Regulation 116 of 2010 Regulations. Muhammed A.A. v. State of Kerala, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 188
  89. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 12 - State - The determination of a body as a 'State' is not a rigid set of principles. What is to be seen is whether in the light of the cumulative facts as established, the body is financially, functionally and administratively dominated by or under the control of the Government, albeit if the control is mere regulatory, whether under statute or otherwise, it will not serve to make the body a State. Also, the presence of some element of public duty or function would not by itself suffice for bringing a body within the net of Article 12. (Para 6) Kishor Madhukar Pinglikar v. Automotive Research Association of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 189
  90. Service Tax - Whether contract is for job work or for supply of manpower - Agreement has to be read as a composite whole - In this case, though ostensibly, the agreement contains a provision for payment on the basis of the rates mentioned in Schedule II, the agreement has to be read as a composite whole. On reading the agreement as a whole, it is apparent that the contract is pure and simple a contract for the provision of contract labour. An attempt has been made to camouflage the contract as a contract for job work to avail of the exemption from the payment of service tax. The judgment of the Tribunal does not, in the circumstances, suffer from any error of reasoning. (Para 17) Adiraj Manpower Services Pvt. Ltd. v. Commissioner of Central Excise Pune II, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 190
  91. Interpretation of Statutes - Taxation - Exemption Entry - When the exemption Entry is clear and unambiguous, no external aid for interpretation is called for, whether in the form of Budget speech or any other notification under any other enactment. (Para 11) Authority for Clarification and Advance Ruling v. Aakavi Spinning Mills (P) Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 191
  92. Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988; Section 7, 13 - The proof of demand of bribe by a public servant and its acceptance by him is sine quo non for establishing the offence under Section 7 of the PC Act - The Failure of the prosecution to prove the demand for illegal gratification would be fatal and mere recovery of the amount from the person accused of the offence under Section 7 or 13 of the Act would not entail his conviction thereunder. (Para 7) K. Shanthamma v. State of Telangana, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 192
  93. Partition Suit - Plaintiff is not disentitled to relief in the second appeal merely on the ground that they have not challenged the judgment and decree of the trial court which denied their claims before the First Appellate Court. Azgar Barid v. Mazambi @ Pyaremabi, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 193
  94. Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012; Section 6 - Once, prima facie, it appears from the material before the Court that the appellant was barely thirteen years of age on the date when the alleged offence took place, both the grounds, namely that "there was a love affair" between the appellant and the second respondent as well as the alleged refusal to marry, are circumstances which will have no bearing on the grant of bail. Having regard to the age of the prosecutrix and the nature and gravity of the crime, no case for the grant of bail was established. The order of the High Court granting bail has to be interfered with since the circumstances which prevailed with the High Court are extraneous in view of the age of the prosecutrix, having regard to the provisions of Section 376 of IPC and Section 6 of POCSO. X (Minor) v. State of Jharkhand, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 194
  95. Income Tax Act, 1961; Section 37(1) - Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002 - Pharmaceutical companies' gifting freebies to doctors, etc. is clearly "prohibited by law", and not allowed to be claimed as a deduction under Section 37(1) - When acceptance of freebies is punishable by the MCI, pharmaceutical companies cannot be granted the tax benefit for providing such freebies, and thereby (actively and with full knowledge) enabling the commission of the act which attracts such opprobrium. (Para 33, 22) Apex Laboratories Pvt. Ltd. v. Deputy Commissioner, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 195
  96. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881; Section 138 and 142 - When a company is the payee of the cheque based on which a complaint is filed under Section 138 of N.I. Act, the complainant necessarily should be the Company which would be represented by an employee who is authorized. Prima­facie, in such a situation the indication in the complaint and the sworn statement (either orally or by affidavit) to the effect that the complainant (Company) is represented by an authorized person who has knowledge, would be sufficient - Such averment and prima facie material is sufficient for the learned Magistrate to take cognizance and issue process. If at all, there is any serious dispute with regard to the person prosecuting the complaint not being authorized or if it is to be demonstrated that the person who filed the complaint has no knowledge of the transaction and, as such that person could not have instituted and prosecuted the complaint, it would be open for the accused to dispute the position and establish the same during the course of the trial. (Para 17) TRL Krosaki Refractories Ltd. v. SMS Asia Pvt. Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 196
  97. Consumer Protection Act, 1986; Section 2(1)(d) - The 'business to business' disputes cannot be construed as consumer disputes, thereby defeating the very purpose of providing speedy and simple redressal to consumer disputes. (Para 47) Shrikant G. Mantri v. Punjab National Bank, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 197
  98. Motor Vehicles Taxation Act, 1997 (U.P.); Sections 2(g), 2(h), 4, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 20A - A financier of a motor vehicle/transport vehicle in respect of which a hire -purchase or lease or hypothecation agreement has been entered, is liable to tax from the date of taking possession of the said vehicle under the said agreement. (Para 12) Mahindra and Mahindra Financial Services Ltd. v. State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 198
  99. Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996; Section 37 - The High Court has no jurisdiction to remand the matter to the same Arbitrator unless it is consented by both the parties that the matter be remanded to the same Arbitrator -The High Court either may relegate the parties for fresh arbitration or to consider the appeal on merits on the basis of the material available on record within the scope and ambit of the jurisdiction under Section 37. (Para 3) Dr. A. Parthasarathy v. E Springs Avenues Pvt. Ltd;, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 199
  100. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 438 - Indefinite adjournment in a matter relating to anticipatory bail, that too after admitting it, is detrimental to the valuable right of a person - When a person is before the Court and that too in a matter involving personal liberty, least what is expected is for such a person to be given the result one way or the other, based on the merit of his case and not push him to a position of uncertainty or be condemned without being heard, when it matters. Rajesh Seth v. State of Chhattisgarh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 200


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