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500 Supreme Court LiveLaw Citations 2022 Part 3 (Citations 201 to 300)

LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK
26 Jun 2022 7:24 AM GMT
500 Supreme Court LiveLaw Citations 2022 Part 3 (Citations 201 to 300)
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  1. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 32 - Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 482 - Writ Petition, under Article 32 of the Constitution of India, for the relief(s) prayed to quash and set aside the criminal proceedings/FIR ought not to have been filed - It is not expected that the relief which can be considered by the High Court under Section 482 Cr.P.C. to be considered in exercise of powers under Article 32 of the Constitution of India.
    Gayatri Prasad Prajapati v. State of Uttar Pradesh,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 201
  2. Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952; Section 14B - Any default or delay in the payment of EPF contribution by the employer under the Act is a sine qua non for imposition of levy of damages under Section 14B - Mens rea or actus reus is not an essential element for imposing penalty/damages for breach of civil obligations/liabilities. (Para 17)
    Horticulture Experiment Station Gonikoppal Coorg v. Regional Provident Fund Organization,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 202
  3. Interpretation of Statute - Taxation Statutes - Exemption Notifications - The exemption notification should not be liberally construed and beneficiary must fall within the ambit of the exemption and fulfill the conditions thereof. In case such conditions are not fulfilled, the issue of application of the notification does not arise at all by implication - The notification has to be read as a whole. An exception and/or an exempting provision in a taxing statute should be construed strictly and given a meaning according to legislative intendment - It is not open to the court to ignore the conditions prescribed in the relevant policy and the exemption notifications issued in that regard.The Statutory provisions providing for exemption have to be interpreted in light of the words employed in them and there cannot be any addition or subtraction from the statutory provisions. (Para 8.1 - 8.3)
    Krishi Upaj Mandi Samiti v. Commissioner,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 203
  4. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 - Section 482 - Though the powers of the High Court under Section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure are wide and are in the nature of inherent power yet, the said power cannot be exercised suo motu in a sweeping manner and beyond the contours of what is stipulated under the said Section. (Para 7)
    Registrar General v. State,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 204
  5. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 16(2) - Compassionate Appointment Policy - Descent cannot be a ground for denying employment under the scheme of compassionate appointments - A policy for compassionate appointment, which has the force of law, must not discriminate on any of the grounds mentioned in Article 16(2), including that of descent by classifying children of the deceased employee as legitimate and illegitimate and recognizing only the right of legitimate descendant. (Para 9, 10)
    Mukesh Kumar v. Union of India,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 205
  6. Blacklisting - Guidelines issued by Odisha Government that blacklisting period per offence shall be limited to three years subject to an overall maximum cumulative period of ten years for multiple offences - Disapproved - Duration of blacklisting cannot be solely per offence. Seriousness of the lapse and the incident and/or gravity of commission and omission on the part of the contractor which led to the incident should be the relevant considerations. In a given case, it may happen that the commission and omission is very grave and because of the serious lapse and/or negligence, a major incident would have taken place. In such a case, it may be the contractor's first offence, in such a case, the period/duration of the blacklisting/banning can be more than three years. However, as the said guidelines are not under challenge, we rest the matter there and leave it to the State Government to suitably amend and/or modify the said office memorandum. However, what we have observed above can be a guide while determining the period of debarment/blacklisting. (Para 9.1)
    State of Odisha v. Panda Infraproject,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 206
  7. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 - Sections 13, 15 and 31 - The claim in respect of the demand was not lodged after public announcements were issued under Sections 13 and 15 of the IBC - On the date on which the Resolution Plan was approved by the NCLT, all claims stood frozen - No claim, which is not a part of the Resolution Plan, would survive.
    Ruchi Soya Industries Ltd. v. Union of India,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 207
  8. Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 - Central Excise Act, 1944 - Section 11E - Provisions contained in the SARFAESI Act, 2002 will have an overriding effect on the provisions of the Central Excise Act of 1944 - secured creditor will have priority over the dues of the Central Excise Department. (Para 43, 44, 47)
    Punjab National Bank v. Union of India | 24 Feb 2022 |
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 208
  9. Civil Litigation - The judgment-creditor is entitled to enjoy the fruit of the litigation within a reasonable time - In our justice delivery system, the real litigation starts only after the decree is passed and the judgment -creditor has to wait for number of years for enjoying the fruit of the decree and the litigation. If such a delayed tactics is permitted, the litigant would lose the confidence in the justice delivery system. Every litigation has to put to an end at a particular time.
    M. Chinnamuthu v. Kamaleshan @ Shanmugam,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 209
  10. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 - Section 439 - Bail - In the case of murder (under Section 302 IPC), it is expected that at least some reason would be given while reversing the order of the Trial Court, which had rejected the bail application by a reasoned order. (Para 4) Sabir v Bhoora @ Nadeem, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 210
  11. Consumer Protection Act, 1986
    - If the NCDRC is of the opinion that the Surveyor was an unnecessary party or the pleadings are contradictory, it should have struck down the said party. The striking of surveyor from the array of parties would not make the complaint disjoined, as it was duty of the NCDRC to strike of an unnecessary party. (Para 3) Brahmaputra Biochem Pvt. Ltd. v. New India Assurance Company, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 211
  12. Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 - Section 14(1) - It is open to the District Magistrate or the Chief Metropolitan Magistrate can appoint an advocate commissioner to assist him/her in execution of the order passed under Section 14(1) - Advocate must be regarded as an officer of the court and, in law, subordinate to the concerned CMM/DM within their jurisdiction. (Para 44)
    NKGSB Cooperative Bank Ltd. v. Subir Chakravarty,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 212
  13. Cinematograph Act, 1952 - SLP Against Bombay High Court order refusing to grant interim injunction against release of the film "Gangubai Kathiawadi" - Dismissed - The film certificate issued by the CBFC prima facie shows that the film is not defamatory. Prima facie, it appears that the movie is an artistic expression within the parameters of law. (Para 25)
    Shri Babuji Rawji Shah v. S. Hussain Zaidi,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 213
  14. Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 - Motor Accident Compensation - Awarding compensation on the head of pain, shock and suffering - Factors to be considered - Prolonged hospitalization; the grievous injuries sustained; the operations underwent and the consequent pain, discomfort and suffering - There cannot be straight jacket formula. It depends upon the facts and circumstances of each case and it varies from person to person who has suffered due to the accident. (Para 8)
    Benson George v. Reliance General Insurance Co. Ltd.,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 214
  15. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 32 - Bail - Writ petition challenging the order of the Magistrate granting bail - Judge granting bail and Addl. District Judge who refused to interfere with said order impleaded by name - Conduct of the petitioner deprecated - No reason why the petitioner should have filed this writ petition directly in this court.
    Balakram @ Bhura v. State of Uttar Pradesh,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 215
  16. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 - Sections 173(6), 161, 207 - Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 - Section 44 - Even for protected witnesses declared so under Section 173(6) Cr.P.C. read with Section 44 UAPA, the accused can exercise their right under Sections 207 and 161 of the Cr.P.C to obtain copies of their redacted statements which would ensure that the identity of the witness not disclosed.
    Waheed -Ur -Rehman Parra v. Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 216
  17. Criminal Trial - Eye Witness - The evidence of eye-witness cannot be discarded only for the reason that he allegedly did not raise any alarm or did not try to intervene when the deceased was being ferociously assaulted and stabbed. Suresh Yadav @ Guddu v. State of Chhattisgarh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 217
  18. Foreigners Act, 1946 - Section 14C - Abetment
    - Mere passivity and insouciance will not tantamount to offence of abetment - The word 'abet' is an essential ingredient - 'Abet' means to aid, to encourage or countenance. An abetment of the offence occurs when a person instigates any person to do that offence or engages with another person(s) in doing that thing. Abinash Dixit v. State of Madhya Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 218
  19. Constitution of India, 1950
    - Writ Petition Challenging Bihar Government notification approving issuance of caste certificate to Lohar community - Allowed - Lohars were not included as members of the Scheduled Tribe right from the beginning and they were, in fact, included as members of the OBCs in the State of Bihar - Lohar is not same as Lohara. Including Lohars alongside 'Lohara' is clearly illegal and arbitrary - State to pay costs of Rs. 5 Lakhs to the petitioners.
    Sunil Kumar Rai v. State of Bihar,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 219
  20. Penal Code, 1860 - Section 34 - A co-perpetrator, who shares a common intention, will be liable only to the extent that he intends or could or should have visualized the possibility or probability of the final act. If the final outcome or offence committed is distinctly remote and unconnected with the common intention, he would not be liable - Merely accompanying the principal accused may not establish common intention - A co -perpetrator, who shares a common intention, will be liable only to the extent that he intends or could or should have visualized the possibility or probability of the final act - The ambit should not be extended so as to hold a person liable for remote possibilities, which were not probable and could not be envisaged. (Para 13, 19)
    Krishnamurthy @ Gunodu vs State of Karnataka,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 220
  21. Consumer Protection Act, 1986 - Section 2(o) - Telegraph Act, 1885 - Section 7B - Existence of an arbitral remedy under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, will not oust the jurisdiction of the consumer forum - It would be open to a consumer to opt for the remedy of arbitration, but there is no compulsion in law to do so and it would be open to a consumer to seek recourse to the remedies which are provided under the Act of 1986, now replaced by the Act of 2019. (Para 16, 20)
    Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. v. Shree Ganesh Petroleum Rajgurunagar,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 221
  22. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 - Section 436 - 439 - Bail - Grant of bail, though a discretionary order, requires such discretion to be exercised in a judicious manner and on the application of certain settled parameters. More heinous the crime, greater is the chance of rejection of bail, though the exercise also depends on the factual matrix of the matter - The Court, amongst others, must consider the prima facie view of whether the accused has committed the offence, nature of the offence, gravity, likelihood of the accused obstructing in any manner or evading the process of justice. Grant of bail draws an appropriate balance between public interest in the administration of justice and protection of individual liberty in a criminal case. The prima facie examination is on the basis of analysis of the record, and should not be confused with examination in detail of the evidence on record to come to a conclusive finding.
    Jameel Ahmad v. Mohammed Umair Mohammad Haroon,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 222
  23. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881, Section 138 - It is surprising that on the one hand, the bank managers have specifically deposed that no such bank account was opened and maintained in their bank while on the other hand the cheque drawn by the respondent in favour of the appellant, was returned with the remark "account frozen" in respect of the same cheque. The bank account has been mentioned on the cheque and the endorsement to the effect "Account Frozen" will presuppose that an account existed".
    Vikram Singh v. Shyoji Ram,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 223
  24. Family Courts Act, 1984 - Section 19, 20 - Limitation Act, 1963- Section 12, 29(2) - The period spent in obtaining the copy can be excluded in calculating the period of limitation to file matrimonial appeals under Family Courts Act - Nothing inconsistent in Section 12 read with Section 29(2) of the Limitation Act with Section 19 of the Family Courts Act - Section 20 will not override the provisions of Section 12 of the Limitation Act.
    N. Rajendran v. S. Valli,
    2022 LiveLaw (SC) 224
  25. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 226 - Specific Performance - No writ of mandamus could have been issued virtually granting the writ for specific performance of the contract/work order in a writ petition under Article 226 of the Constitution of India. (Para 8) Municipal Corporation Gondia v. Divi Works & Suppliers, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 225
  26. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 32, 226 - Public Interest Litigation - Locus Standi -One of the measures to ensure that frivolous or private interests are not masqueraded as genuine claims, is to be cautious when examining locus standi. Generally, PIL, being a summary jurisdiction, has limited powers to examine the bonafides of parties. It is usually on the pleadings that the Court should take a prima facie view on the bonafides of the party. If the Court concludes that the litigation was initiated under the shadow of reasonable suspicion, then the Court may decline to entertain the claims on merits. In these cases, Courts have multiple options – such as dismissing the PIL or appointing an amicus curiae, if the cause espoused in the case requires the immediate attention of the Court. (Para 22) Esteem Properties Pvt. Ltd. v. Chetan Kamble, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 226
  27. Limitation Act, 1963 - Section 5 - Delay Condonation - When it is found that the delay is not properly explained, the application to condone delay is required to be dismissed - he Court has no power to extend the period of limitation on equitable grounds - Still to condone the delay would be giving a premium to a person who fails to explain the delay and who is guilty of delay and laches. (Para 5) Lingeswaran v. Thirunagalingam, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 227
  28. Criminal Trial - Murder - Where, however, the only evidence against an accused person is the recovery of stolen property and although the circumstances may indicate that the theft and the murder must have been committed at the same time, it is not safe to draw the inference that the person in possession of the stolen property was the murdered. Suspicion cannot take the place of proof. Tulesh Kumar Sahu v. State of Chattisgarh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 228
  29. Criminal trial - Circumstantial Evidence - Motive - absence of motive in a case of circumstantial evidence weighs in favour of the accused - motive not relevant in a case of direct evidence. Nandu Singh v. State of Madhya Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 229
  30. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 - Section 173 - Magistrate to have due regard to both the reports, the initial report which was submitted under Section 173(2) as well as the supplementary report which was submitted after further investigation in terms of Section 173(8). It is thereafter that the Magistrate would have to take a considered view in accordance with law as to whether there is ground for presuming that the persons named as accused have committed an offence. Luckose Zachariah @ Zak Nedumchira Luke v. Joseph Joseph, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 230
  31. Practice and Procedure - Special Leave Petitions - Whenever documents/ additional documents are to be relied upon are to be produced and as far as possible, they must be filed along with the Special Leave Petition. If for any reason the same have not been filed along with the Special Leave Petition then in that case the same shall be filed well in advance before the Special Leave Petitions are heard by the Courts. By not filing the application for additional documents at the time of filing the Special Leave Petition but filing the same at the last moment and on the previous day of the posting of the Special Leave Petition and many a time late in the evening causes great inconvenience to the Court. (Para 2-4) Priyashi Aashi Developers Pvt. Ltd. v. Mitrajyoti Deka, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 231
  32. Constitution of India, 1950 - Article 226 - Writ Petitions - Delay and latches - High Courts directing the authorities to decide the representation though the representations are made belatedly - Mere representation does not extend the period of limitation - If it is found that the writ petitioner is guilty of delay and latches, the High Court should dismiss it at the threshold and ought not to dispose of the writ petition by relegating the writ petitioner to file a representation and/or directing the authority to decide the representation - Such order shall not give an opportunity to the petitioner to thereafter contend that rejection of the representation subsequently has given a fresh cause of action. (Para 4, 5) Surjeet Singh Sahni v. State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 232
  33. Environmental Law - Appeal against NGT order directing that mining activity shall not be permitted within and in the vicinity of Simplipal - Hadagarh - Kuldiha – Simplipal elephant corridor - Disposed of - Implement the Comprehensive Wildlife Management Plan as suggested by the Standing Committee of NBWL before permitting any mining activity in the eco-sensitive zone - Complete the process of declaration of the traditional elephant corridor as conservation reserve expeditiously. The mining operations of 97 quarries shall be permitted only thereafter. Binay Kumar Dalei v. State of Odisha, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 233
  34. Criminal Trial - The prosecution is required to prove its case beyond reasonable doubt and not beyond all iota of doubt. (Para 46) Karan Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 234
  35. Public Auction - Highest bidder has no vested right to have the auction concluded in his favour - State or authority is not bound to accept the highest tender of bid. The acceptance of the highest bid or highest bidder is always subject to conditions of holding public auction and the right of the highest bidder is always provisional to be examined in the context in different conditions in which the auction has been held. (Para 18, 26) State of Punjab v. Mehar Din, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 235
  36. Service Law - Promotion - Seniority cum merit - A marred service record, though not an insurmountable bar, must carry some consequences, and it could be a comparative disadvantage in promotion for a selection post. The employer's preference for a person with a clean service record can be well appreciated - Despite the difficulty in encapsulating the parameters for 'merit', a significant marker can be found in the unblemished record of the employee. (Para 25) Rama Negi v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 236
  37. Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes (Reservation of Appointments, etc.) Act, 1990 (Karnataka) - Section 4 - Appointments to the reserved vacancies are meant only for those who are deserving by being members of the said community alone. If any person other than a member of the reserved community is appointed, it would clearly constitute an infringement of the rights of the genuinely deserving members of the said community - Even the applicants applying under the general categories could be adversely affected. (Para 9) Jayashree v. Director Collegiate Education, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 237
  38. Contract Act, 1872 - Section 65 - Restitution - In adjudicating a claim of restitution, the court must determine the illegality which caused the contract to become void and the role the party claiming restitution has played in it. If the party claiming restitution was equally or more responsible for the illegality (in comparison to the defendant), there shall be no cause for restitution. (Para 52) Loop Telecom and Trading Ltd. v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 238
  39. Urban Buildings (Regulation of Letting, Rent and Eviction) Act, 1972 (Uttar Pradesh) - Section 21(1)(a) - Ground of bona fide requirement does not strictly require the landlord to be "unemployed" to maintain an action. All that the provision contemplates is that the requirement so pleaded by the landlord must be bona fide. Harish Kumar v. Pankaj Kumar Garg, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 239
  40. Constitution of India, 1950 - Levy of Excise Duty - State Legislature has no authority to levy duty or tax on alcohol, which is not for human consumption as that could be levied only by the Centre - State only empowered to levy excise duty on alcoholic liquor for human consumption. State of Orissa v. Utkal Distilleries Ltd; 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 240
  41. Civil Suit - Injunction - Once the dispute with respect to title is settled and it is held against the plaintiff, the suit by the plaintiff for permanent injunction shall not be maintainable against the true owner. (Para 9) Padhiyar Prahladji Chenaji v. Maniben Jagmalbhai, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 241
  42. UGC Regulations on Minimum Qualifications for Appointment of Teachers and Other Academic Staff in Universities and Colleges and Measures for the Maintenance of Standards in Higher Education, 2010 (now UGC Regulations, 2018) - Sardar Patel University Act, 1955 - Any appointment as a Vice Chancellor contrary to the provisions of the UGC Regulations can be said to be in violation of the statutory provisions - Hope and trust that wiser counsel will now prevail and the State Government shall amend the State legislation accordingly on par with the UGC Regulations. (Para 16) Gambhirdhan K Gadhvi v. State of Gujarat, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 242
  43. Prohibition of Cow Slaughter Act, 2004 (Madhya Pradesh); Section 11 - In a case where the offender/accused are acquitted in the Criminal Prosecution, the judgment given in the Criminal Trial should be factored in by the District Magistrate while deciding the confiscation proceeding. (Para 21) Abdul Vahab v. State of Madhya Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 243
  44. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 226 - Judicial Review of Disciplinary Proceedings - The courts would not interfere unless the exercise of discretion in awarding punishment is perverse in the sense the punishment imposed is grossly disproportionate - Quantum of punishment is within the discretionary domain and the sole power of the decision-making authority once the charge of misconduct stands proved - While exercising the power of judicial review, the court do not assume the role of the appellate authority. Writ jurisdiction is circumscribed by limits of correcting errors of law, procedural error leading to manifest injustice or violation of principles of natural justice. The decision are also disturbed when it is found to be ailing with perversity. (Para 9) Union of India v. Managobinda Samantaray, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 244
  45. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 - The physical nature of the material is not relevant for determining whether the contents of the sample analyzed were actually opium or not, and physical analysis is not prescribed under the provisions of the NDPS Act for testing the opium. Sukhdev Singh v. State of Punjab, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 245
  46. Civil Suit - Adverse Possession - Suit for declaration based on adverse possession having matured into ownership – Maintainable. Darshan Kaur Bhatia v. Ramesh Gandhi, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 246
  47. Penal Code, 1860; Section 302 - Trial Court does not have the jurisdiction to sentence an accused to life imprisonment which is to extend to the remainder of their life. Narendra Singh @ Mukesh @ Bhura v. State of Rajasthan, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 247
  48. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 468 - The relevant date is the date of filing of the complaint or the date of institution of prosecution and not the date on which the Magistrate takes cognizance of the offence. Amritlal v. Shantilal Soni, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 248
  49. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 226 - Writ Appeal - There must be an independent application of mind and at least some independent reasoning to be given by the appellate Court while deciding and disposing of the writ appeal. (Para 6) State of Uttar Pradesh v. Prem Kumar Shukla, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 249
  50. Judicial Service - Appeal against Bombay HC judgment which refused to interfere with cancellation of appointment of appellant judicial officer who could not join before prescribed date due to nationwide lockdown imposed in view of covid-19 pandemic - Allowed - It is not a case where there is a complete dearth of any explanation by the candidate - There was considerable confusion also about what a person could do and what a person could not do during the time of the lockdown. It was an unprecedented situation which affected the nation - Impugned notification quashed and appointment restored - The appellant will not be entitled to claim seniority / backwages. Rakesh Kumar v. State of Bihar, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 250
  51. Criminal Trial - Merely because the witnesses were the relatives of the deceased, their evidence cannot be discarded. (Para 10) M. Nageswara Reddy v. State of Andhra Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 251
  52. Limitation Act, 1963 - Section 5 does not apply to suits, but only to appeals and to applications except for applications under Order XXI of the Civil Procedure Code - Limitation may harshly affect a particular party, but it has to be applied with all its rigour when the statute so prescribes. The Court has no power to extend the period of limitation on equitable grounds, even though the statutory provision may sometimes cause hardship or inconvenience to a particular party. The Court has no choice, but to enforce it giving full effect to the same. F. Liansanga v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 252
  53. Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002; Section 13 (8) - By paying the highest bid amount / reserve price, the borrower cannot be discharged of its liability of the outstanding due to be paid to the bank - Unless and until he was ready to deposit / pay the entire amount payable together with all costs and expenses with the secured creditor, the borrower cannot be discharged from the entire liability outstanding. (Para 7.1) Bank of Baroda v. Karwa Trading Company, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 253
  54. Service Law - Promotion - A mere existence of vacancy per se will not create a right in favour of an employee for retrospective promotion when the vacancies in the promotional post is specifically prescribed under the rules, which also mandate the clearance through a selection process - There can never be a parity between two separate sets of rules - A right to promotion and subsequent benefits and seniority would arise only with respect to the rules governing the said promotion, and not a different set of rules which might apply to a promoted post facilitating further promotion which is governed by a different set of rules. (Para 18) Union of India v. Manpreet Singh Poonam, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 254
  55. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908; Order XXI Rule 34 - It is the duty of the court to cause the draft to be served upon the judgment debtor and to apply its mind and to make alterations in the draft, if needed, when objections are filed - It will be thereafter that the decree holder is to deliver it to the court with the alterations if any made by the court, on proper stamp paper, if required and the execution of the document is effected by the court or the officer appointed. (Para 10-11) Rajbir v. Suraj Bhan, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 255
  56. Customs Act, 1962; Section 129E - Under the new regime, the amount to be deposited to maintain the appeal has been reduced from 100% to 7.5% - The discretion which was made available to the appellate body to scale down the pre-deposit has been taken away - In regard to stay applications and appeals which were pending before any Appellate Authority prior to commencement of The Finance (No.2) Act 2014, Section 129E as substituted would not apply. (Para 8) Chandra Sekhar Jha v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 256
  57. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 394 - Abatement of Criminal Appeal - Appellant died during pendency of appeal - The counsel, as an Amicus, cannot be treated as a near relative of the deceased appellant/convict - The application for continuance of the appeal having not been made within 30 days or even thereafter by any near relative, as per the provision of Section 394 of the Cr.P.C., this appeal would abate. Yeruva Sayireddy v. State of Andhra Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 257
  58. Penal Code, 1860; Section 34 - Common Intention - Once it has been established and proved by the prosecution that all the accused came at the place of incident with a common intention to kill the deceased and as such, they shared the common intention, in that case it is immaterial whether any of the accused who shared the common intention had used any weapon or not and/or any of them caused any injury on the deceased or not. (Para 4.2) State of MP v. Ramji Lal Sharma, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 258
  59. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 - The object and purpose of 14 the IBC is not to kill the company and stop/stall the project, but to ensure that the business of the company runs as a going concern. (Para 12) Amit Katyal v. Meera Ahuja, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 259
  60. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Chapter VIII - Powers of the Executive Magistrate to take bond for maintaining security and for keeping the peace and good behaviour by the citizens - Procedure explained. (Para 7) Devadassan v. Second Class Executive Magistrate, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 260
  61. Service Law - MACP Scheme - That, some employees could have benefitted more under the ACP benefits, if the MACP scheme had not been introduced from an earlier date, is no ground to hold so and compel an executive agency to grant the claimed benefits. (Para 37) Vice Chairman Delhi Development Authority v. Narender Kumar, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 261
  62. Schedule Castes and Backward Classes (Reservation in Service) Act, 2006 (Punjab); Section 7 - De­reservation for the reserved vacancy by the appointing authority is restricted. The said de­reservation may be possibly directed by the Department of Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes if it is expedient in public interest after recording satisfaction for such de­reservation. In the said contingency the department shall pass an order assigning those reasons. Thus, in the context of 2006 Act also the de­reservation or interchangeability may be possible with a rigour to exercise such power by the department, namely; Department of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes and not by appointing authority. (Para 20) Mandeep Kumar v. U.T. Chandigarh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 262
  63. Constitution (Seventy-Fourth Amendment) Act, 1992 - The scheme of the Constitutional Amendment is not to take away legislative competence of the State Legislatures to legislate on the subject of local Government but it is more to ensure that the three tiers of governance are strengthened as part of democratic set up. (Para 8) State of Rajasthan v. Ashok Khetoliya, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 263
  64. Contempt of Courts Act, 1971 - Jurisdiction of a Court under the Act, would not cease, merely because the order or decree of which contempt is alleged, is executable under law, even without having recourse to contempt proceedings - Irrespective of whether or not a decree is executable, the question to be considered by this Court in determining whether a case for contempt has been made out was, whether, the conduct of the contemnor was such as would make a fit case for awarding punishment for contempt of Court. (Para 13.2,13.3, 15.1) Urban Infrastructure Real Estate Fund v. Dharmesh S. Jain, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 264
  65. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 319 - Power under Section 319 of the Code is a discretionary and extraordinary power which should be exercised sparingly and only in those cases where the circumstances of the case so warrant and the crucial test as noticed above has to be applied is one which is more than prima facie case as exercised at the time of framing of charge, but short of satisfaction to an extent that the evidence, if goes unrebutted, would lead to conviction. Sagar v. State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 265
  66. Service Law - Transfer Policy - The State while formulating a policy for its own employees has to give due consideration to the importance of protecting family life as an element of the dignity of the person and a postulate of privacy. (Para 51) SK Naushad Rahman v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 266
  67. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 - Section 50 - Personal search did not result in recovery of any contraband material but the non-compliance of requirement of affording an option to be searched before a Magistrate of a competent Gazetted Officer - Accused acquitted. (Para 9) Sanjeev v. State of Himachal Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 267
  68. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908; Order 41 Rule 27 - The appellate court to take additional evidence in exceptional circumstances - Where the additional evidence sought to be adduced removes the cloud of doubt over the case and the evidence has a direct and important bearing on the main issue in the suit and interest of justice clearly renders it imperative that it may be allowed to be permitted on record, such application may be allowed - The admissibility of additional evidence does not depend upon the relevancy to the issue on hand, or on the fact, whether the applicant had an opportunity for adducing such evidence at an earlier stage or not, but it depends upon whether or not the appellate court requires the evidence sought to be adduced to enable it to pronounce judgment or for any other substantial cause - The true test, therefore is, whether the appellate court is able to pronounce judgment on the materials before it without taking into consideration the additional evidence sought to be adduced. (Para 4) Sanjay Kumar Singh v. State of Jharkhand, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 268
  69. Interim Directions - Appeal against Punjab and Haryana HC interim directions issued against OLX - Allowed -There was no occasion for the High Court to pass these directions; and more particularly, without hearing the appellant. OLX India BV v. State of Haryana, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 269
  70. Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 - Whether a person holding a driving licence in respect of "light motor vehicle", could on the strength of that licence, be entitled to drive a "transport vehicle of light motor vehicle class" having unladen weight not exceeding 7500 kgs.? - Certain provisions were not noticed by the court in Mukund Dewangan v. Oriental Insurance Company Limited (2017) 14 SCC 663 - The controversy in question needs to be revisited - referred to larger bench of more than Three Judges. Bajaj Alliance General Insurance v Rambha Devi, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 270
  71. Employee's Compensation Act, 1923 - The liability to pay the compensation would arise from the date on which the deceased died for which he is entitled to the compensation and therefore, the liability to pay the interest on the amount of arrears/compensation shall be from the date of accident and not from the date of the order passed by the Commissioner. (Para 4.1) Shobha v. Chairman, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 271
  72. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 439 - Bail - The Court deciding a bail application cannot completely divorce its decision from material aspects of the case such as the allegations made against the accused; severity of the punishment if the allegations are proved beyond reasonable doubt which would result in a conviction; reasonable apprehension of the witnesses being influenced by the accused; tampering of the evidence; the frivolity in the case of the prosecution; criminal antecedents of the accused; and a prima facie satisfaction of the Court in support of the charge against the accused. (Para 26) Kamla Devi v. State of Rajasthan, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 272
  73. Practice and Procedure - Judgment must have clarity on exact relief granted so as to avoid difficulty in execution. Pramina Devi v. State of Jharkhand, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 273
  74. Service Law - Compassionate Appointments restricted to Class III/IV (group C/D) Posts - SC pulls up TN Govt over Group B Appointments. M. Kendra Devi v. Government of Tamil Nadu, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 274
  75. Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881; Sections 138, 139 - At the time, when the complainant gives his evidence, unless a case is set up in the reply notice to the statutory notice sent, that the complainant did not have the wherewithal, it cannot be expected of the complainant to initially lead evidence to show that he had the financial capacity - However, the accused has the right to demonstrate that the complainant in a particular case did not have the capacity and therefore, the case of the accused is acceptable which he can do by producing independent materials, namely, by examining his witnesses and producing documents, by pointing to the materials produced by the complainant himself, or through the cross examination of the witnesses of the complainant. (Para 9) Tedhi Singh v. Narayan Dass Mahant, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 275
  76. Succession Act, 1925; Sections 299, 279, 276, 263 - Revocation of Letters of Administration - Appeal against High Court judgment which allowed application for revocation of the Letters of Administration on the ground that all the legal heirs were not impleaded in the proceedings for the grant of Letters of Administration - Dismissed - The catch is not to be found in the distinction between Section 276 and Section 278. It is to be found in Section 263 - Illustration (ii) under Section 263 deals with a case where "the grant was made without citing parties who ought to have been cited". Swaminathan v. Alankamony, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 276
  77. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 16 - Railways LARGESS Scheme - Scheme provided an avenue for backdoor entry into service and was contrary to the mandate of Article 16 which guarantees equal opportunity in matters of public employment. Chief Personnel Officer v. A. Nishanth George, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 277
  78. Income Tax Act, 1961; Section 194A(1) - Whether the appellant Union Bank of India was required by the provisions of Section 194A of the Income Tax Act 1961 to deduct tax at source on payments of interest made to the Agra Development Authority - Judgment in Commissioner of Income Tax (TDS) Kanpur and Another vs Canara Bank (2018) 9 SCC 322 relied on - The orders imposing penalty under Section 271C of the Income Tax Act set aside. Union Bank of India v. Additional Commissioner of Income Tax (TDS), 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 278
  79. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 227 - Supervisory Jurisdiction - Scope of interference by the supervisory Court on decisions of the fact-finding forum is limited - Supreme Court was of the view that there was overstepping of this boundary by the High Court - in its exercise of scrutinising the evidence to find perversity in the order of the Appellate Tribunal, there was re-appreciation of evidence itself by the High Court - the High Court in exercise of its jurisdiction under Article 227 had gone deep into the factual arena to disagree with the final fact-finding forum - the High Court tested the legality of the order of the Tribunal through the lens of an appellate body and not as a supervisory Court exercising powers under Article 227 of the Constitution of India. Puri Investments v. Young Friends and Co., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 279
  80. Code of Civil Procedure, 1908; Order VII Rule 11 - Rejection of Plaint - While considering an application under Order VII Rule 11 CPC, the Court has to go through the entire plaint averments and cannot reject the plaint by reading only few lines/passages and ignoring the other relevant parts of the plaint - Only in a case where on the face of it, it is seen that the suit is barred by limitation, then and then only a plaint can be rejected - The plaint cannot be rejected partially. (Para 7, 7.1, 7.4) Biswanath Banik v. Sulanga Bose, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 280
  81. Penal Code, 1860; Sections 403, 415 - Failure to pay rent may have civil consequences, but is not a penal offence under the Indian Penal Code. Neetu Singh v. State of U.P., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 281
  82. Letters Patent (Calcutta High Court); Clause 15 - Whether an order impugned would be a 'judgment' within the scope of Clause 15 of Letters Patent, would depend on facts and circumstances of each case - For such an order to be construed as a 'judgment', it must have the traits and trappings of finality - It must affect vital and valuable rights of the parties, which works serious injustice to the party concerned. Each and every order passed by the Court during the course of the trial, though may cause some inconvenience to one of the parties or, to some extent, some prejudice to one of the parties, cannot be treated as a 'judgment'. If such is permitted, the floodgate of appeals would be open against the order of Single Judge. Shyam Sel and Power Ltd. v. Shyam Steel Industries Ltd; 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 282
  83. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 362 - Application for recall of the order maintainable when it is an application seeking a procedural review, and not a substantive review. Ganesh Patel v. Umakant Rajoria, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 283
  84. Judicial Service - Discharge of Judicial Officer - Negligence cannot be treated to be misconduct - Relief-oriented judicial approaches cannot by themselves be grounds to cast aspersions on the honesty and integrity of an officer- Every judicial officer is likely to commit mistake of some kind or the other in passing orders in the initial stage of his service, which a mature judicial officer would not do. However, if the orders are passed without there being any corrupt motive, the same should be over-looked by the High Court and proper guidance should be provided to him. (Para 69, 54) Abhay Jain v. High Court of Judicature for Rajasthan, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 284
  85. Service Rules (Kerala); Rule 3 and 3A- Death Cum Retirement Gratuity - The pendency of the appeal cannot disentitle the State from withholding the DCRG - Rule 3A cannot be read in isolation 25 nor the latter part of it struck down as done by the High Court. Rule 3, Note 2, Ruling 3, and Rule 3A have to be read in conjunction as they provide for the treatment of the DCRG in case of disciplinary or judicial proceedings pending at the stage of retirement. Even in the absence of these proceedings in certain eventualities the amounts can be recovered from the DCRG - Set aside Full Bench judgment of Kerala High Court in K. Chandran vs Local Self Government Department 2020 (5) KLT 669 (FB) (Para 37, 39) Local Self Government Department v. K. Chandran, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 285
  86. Constitution of India, 1950; Article 233, 235 - The High Courts are well within their domain in prescribing a requirement which ensures that candidates with sufficient maturity enter the fold of the higher judiciary. The requirement that a candidate should be at least 35 years of age is intended to sub-serve this - The Constitution does not preclude the exercise of the rule making power by the High Courts to regulate the conditions of service or appointment - Age is not extraneous to the acquisition of maturity and experience, especially in judicial institutions which handle real problems and confront challenges to liberty and justice. (Para 26) High Court of Delhi v. Devina Sharma, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 286
  87. Penal Code, 1860; Section 34 - Common intention pre­supposes prior concert. It requires meeting of minds, a pre­arranged plan before a man can be vicariously convicted for the criminal act of another. The criminal act must have been done in furtherance of the common intention of all the accused. In a given case, the plan can be formed suddenly. (Para 9) Gadadhar Chandra v. State of West Bengal, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 287
  88. Criminal Trial - Sentencing - In determining the quantum of sentence, the Court must bear in mind the circumstances pertaining to the offence and all other relevant circumstances including the age of the offender - The principles of restorative justice find place within the Indian Constitution and severity of sentence is not the only determinant for doing justice to the victims. (Para 7, 8) Vipul Rasikbhai Koli Jankher v. State of Gujarat, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 288
  89. One Rank One Pension - No constitutional infirmity in the OROP principle as defined by the communication dated 7 November 2015 - The definition of OROP is uniformly applicable to all the pensioners irrespective of the date of retirement - The cut-off date is used only for the purpose of determining the base salary for the calculation of pension- Varying pension payable to officers of the same rank retiring before and after 1 July 2014 either due to MACP or the different base salary used for the calculation of pension cannot be held arbitrary. (Para 49) Indian Ex Servicemen Movement v. Union of India, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 289
  90. Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967; Section 43D(2)(b) - Magistrate would not be competent to consider the request for extension of time to complete investigation - The only competent authority to consider such request would be "the Court" as specified in the proviso in Section 43-D (2)(b) of the UAPA - Review petition filed by the State dismissed. State of Madhya Pradesh v. Sadique, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 290
  91. Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Section 190(1)(b) - Jurisdiction to issue summons can be exercised even in respect of a person whose name may not feature at all in the police report, whether as accused or in column (2) thereof if the Magistrate is satisfied that there are materials on record which would reveal prima facie his involvement in the offence. (Para 20) Nahar Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 291
  92. Court Fees Act, 1870; Section 7 - Once the suit in question is a money suit for compensation and damages falling under clause (i) of Section 7 of the Act, ad valorem Court-fees would be payable on the amount claimed - It is only with respect to the category of suits specified in clause (iv) of Section 7 of the Act that the plaintiff has the liberty of stating in the plaint the amount at which relief is valued and Court-fees would be payable on the said amount. (Para 21) State of Punjab v. Dev Brat Sharma, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 292
  93. Customs Act, 1962; Sections 87, 130(2), 130E(b) - Dispute concerning an exemption cannot be equated with a dispute in relation to the rate of duty - Whether the assessee is entitled to exemption as claimed or not, such an issue cannot be said to be an issue relating, amongst other things, to the determination of any question having relation to the rate of duty. (Para 4) Asean Cableship Pte. Ltd. v. Commissioner of Customs, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 293
  94. Reservation - Vacating earlier interim order, the Court refused to stay the G.O. dated 07.11.2020 issued in the State of Tamil Nadu purporting to reserve 50% seats at the Super Specialty level in Government Medical Colleges to in-service doctors - Expressed a prima facie view that States are competent to provide such reservation. N. Karthikeyan v. State of Tamil Nadu, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 294
  95. Tender - Owner should always have the freedom to provide the eligibility criteria and/or the terms and conditions of the bid unless it is found to be arbitrary, mala fide and/or tailor made. The bidder/tenderer cannot be permitted to challenge the bid condition/clause which might not suit him and/or convenient to him- It is an offer to the prospective bidder/tenderer to compete and submit the tender considering the terms and conditions mentioned in the tender document. Balaji Ventures Pvt. Ltd. v. Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Ltd., 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 295
  96. Service Law - Regularization - The date from which regularization is to be granted is a matter to be decided by the employer keeping in view a number of factors like the nature of the work, number of posts lying vacant, the financial condition of the employer, the additional financial burden caused, the suitability of the workmen for the job, the manner and reason for which the initial appointments were made etc. The said decision will depend upon the facts of each year and no parity can be claimed based on regularization made in respect of the earlier years. (Para 9-12) Ajmer Vidhyut Vitran Nigam Ltd. v. Chiggan Lal, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 296
  97. Evidence Act, 1872; Sections 45, 47, 73 - Opinion of the handwriting expert is not the only way or mode of providing the signature and handwriting of a person - The signatures and handwriting of the person can also be proved under Sections 45, 47 and 73. Manorama Naik v. State of Odisha, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 297
  98. Practice and Procedure - Ordinarily, before passing any order for expeditious proceedings in a particular case , it would be appropriate for the higher Court to appreciate that any such order for one case, without cogent and extremely compelling reasons, might upset the calendar and schedule of the subordinate Court; might result in assigning an unwarranted priority to that particular case over and above other cases pending in that Court; and progression of such other cases might suffer for no reason and none of the faults of the litigants involved therein. Moreover, such petitions, even when moved before the higher Court, need to be examined from all angles. (Para 4, 5) M. Gopalakrishnan v. Pasumpon Muthuramalingam, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 298
  99. Transfer of Property Act, 1882; Section 122 - Gift - If the donor is making a gift out of his own free will and volition and is the exclusive owner of the properties, it is nobody's concern as to whom he gives the properties to - It is time that the Courts get out of this mindset, or possibly may have got out of this mindset by now on passing value judgments on relationships between parties in determining either a testamentary or non-testamentary disposition so long as the document executed is found to be validly executed. Mohinder Singh v. Mal Singh, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 299
  100. Service Law - Suppression of Material Information - The candidate who intend to participate in the selection process is required to furnish correct information relating to his character and antecedents in the verification/attestation form before or after his induction into service - The person who has suppressed the material information, cannot claim unfettered right of seeking appointment or continuity in service but, at the same time, he has a right not to be dealt with arbitrarily and power has to be exercised in reasonable manner with objectivity having due regard to the facts of case on hand. The yardstick which has to be applied always depends upon the nature of post, nature of duties, impact of suppression on suitability has to be considered by the competent authority considering post/nature of duties/services and power has to be exercised on due diligence of various aspects at the given time and no hard and fast rule of thumb can be laid down in this regard. (Para 15) Umesh Chandra Yadav v. Inspector General and Chief Security Commissioner, 2022 LiveLaw (SC) 300

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